http://www.innovativegis.com/basis/Default_files/image002.jpgBeyond Mapping Compilation Series

   

by Joseph K. Berry

 

…Beyond Mapping columns appearing in GeoWorld (formally GIS World) magazine

    from March 1989 through December 2013.

 

 

Most GIS applications have focused on mapping and spatial data management for viewing and geo-query of mapped data.  Map analysis and GIS modeling involve entirely new spatial reasoning concepts and procedures that are not reflected in our paper map legacy.  The four books in the Beyond Mapping Compilation Series are based on Joe Berry’s popular "Beyond Mapping" columns in GIS World/GeoWorld magazine that discusses the new breed of map analysis tools, how they can be used to better characterize and communicate spatial relationships, be organized into effective GIS model solutions, and spark entirely new spatial paradigms. The topics covered are written for novices, as well as GIS professionals, in a witty style that entertains as well as informs. 

 

(click to access additional Chronological, Operations, Interactive and Index Listings with hyperlinks to individual Beyond Mapping columns)

 

(click for a hardcopy version of this document posted at http://www.innovativegis.com/basis/BeyondMappingSeries/)

______________________________________________________________

 

Applications Listing

with hyperlinks to individual Beyond Mapping columns

 

The following Application Listing contains all of Beyond Mapping (BM) columns appearing in GeoWorld from 1989 through 2013 alphabetically sorted into the twenty-three major application groupings identified below (< click> on any of the items to jump to that grouping)

 

Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations (70 columns)

NaturalResources_EmergencyResponse (7 columns)

Basic_ConceptsApproach (32 columns)

NaturalResources_Harvesting (3 columns)

Basic_ConceptsData (29 columns)

NaturalResources_Planning (9 columns)

Basic_Discussion (51 columns)

NaturalResources_Suitability (8 columns)

 

NaturalResources_WildFire (5 columns)

GeoBusiness_DataGrouping (4 columns)

 

GeoBusiness_InStoreMovement (3 columns)

PrecisionAgriculture_Analysis (8 columns)

GeoBusiness_RetailMarketing (7 columns)

PrecisionAgriculture_Process (1 column)

GeoBusiness_SurfaceModeling (2 columns)

 

GeoBusiness_TravelTime (2 columns)

Terrain_Analysis (11 columns)

 

 

GIS_Education (14 columns)

Video_Mapping (3 columns)

 

VirtualReality_Mapping (3 columns)

Infrastructure_Pipeline (6 columns)

 

Infrastructure_Routing (4 columns)

 

 

 

 

Note: The colors in column 1 and 5 indicate the book—  blue= Book IV, GIS Modeling;  Salmon= Book III, Map Analysis;  green= Book II, Spatial Reasoning; and,  Grey= Book I, Beyond Mapping.  When viewing the results of sorting on Groupings of Approaches and Operations or Application Areas the colors are helpful in quickly identifying the Book associated with each record (original Beyond Mapping column) appearing in the reorganized listing.

 

 

Date Code

 

(Col 1)

Month

 

(Col 2)

Year

 

(Col 3)

Column Title/Description

 

(Col 4)

Book/

 

Topic/Section

 

(Col 5)

Groupings of  Operations

 

(Col 6)

Groupings of  Applications

 

(Col 7)

2013.10

October

2013

Laying the Foundation for SpatialSTEM: Spatial Mathematics, Map Algebra and Map Analysis — discusses the conceptual foundation and intellectual shifts needed for SpatialSTEM

Topic 9, S6

ConceptualFramework_Operations

Basic_ConceptsAnalyticalOperations

2013.02

February

2013

Recasting Map Analysis Operations for General Consumption — reorganizes ArcGIS’s Spatial Analyst tools into the SpatialSTEM framework that extends traditional math/stat procedures

B4, Topic 9, Further Reading4

ConceptualFramework_Operations

Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations

2012.07

July

2012

Narrowing-In on Absurd Gerrymanders — discusses how a Narrowness Index (NI) can be applied to assess redistricting configurations

B4, Topic 2, S5

Reclassify_shape

Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations

2011.06

June

2011

Breaking Away from Breakpoints  describes the use of curve-fitting to derive continuous equations for suitability model ratings

B4, Topic 4, Further Reading3

Map_Normalization

Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations

2011.05

May

2011

Correlating Maps and a Numerical Mindset  describes a Spatially Localized Correlation procedure for mapping the mutual relationship between two map variables 

B4, Topic 4, S4

SpatialDataMining_PredictiveStatistics

Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations

2011.04

April

2011

Comparing Apples and Oranges  describes a Standard Normal Variable (SNV) procedure for normalizing maps for comparison

B4, Topic 4, Further Reading2

Map_Normalization

Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations

2011.03

March

2011

A Dynamic Tune-up for Distance Calculations  describes the algorithms for dynamic effective distance procedures involving intervening conditions

B4, Topic 2, S2

Distance_EffectiveProximity

Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations

2006.07

July

2006

Statistically Compare Discrete Maps  discusses procedures for comparing discrete maps

B3, Topic 10, S1

Map_ComparisonDiscreteData

Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations

2006.06

June

2006

Under the Hood of Spatial Interpolation  investigates the basic concepts in IDW and Kriging interpolation procedures

B3, Topic 9, S3

SurfaceModeling_Interpolation

Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations

2006.05

May

2006

The Average Is Hardly Anywhere  discusses the difference between spatial and non-spatial data distributions

B3, Topic 9, S2

SurfaceModeling_Interpolation

Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations

2006.04

April

2006

Key Concepts Characterize Unique Conditions  describes a technique for handling unique combinations of map layers

B3, Topic 3, Further Reading1

Overlay_CellbyCellCoincidence

Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations

2005.12

December

2005

Filtering for the Good Stuff — investigates a couple of spatial filters for assessing neighborhood connectivity and variability

B3, Topic 6 , Further Reading3

Neighborhood_Summary

Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations

2005.11

November

2005

Milking Spatial Context Information — describes a procedure for deriving a customer density surface

B3, Topic 6, S2

Neighborhood_Summary

Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations

2005.07

July

2005

Calculate and Compare to Find Effective Proximity — describes how effective proximity is calculated

B3, Topic 4, Further Reading2

Distance_EffectiveProximity

Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations

2005.06

June

2005

Extend Simple Proximity to Effective Movement — discusses the concept of effective distance responding to relative and absolute barriers

B3, Topic 4, S4

Distance_EffectiveProximity

Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations

2005.05

May

2005

Use Cells and Rings to Calculate Simple Proximity — describes how simple proximity is calculated

B3, Topic 4, Further Reading1

Distance_EffectiveProximity

Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations

2005.04

April

2005

Measuring Distance Is Neither Here nor There — discusses the basic concepts of distance and proximity

B3, Topic 4, S3

Distance_EffectiveProximity

Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations

2005.03

March

2005

Making Space for Mapped Data — investigates the link between geographic space and data space for mapping data patterns

B3, Topic 2, S4

SpatialDataMining_Clustering

Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations

2005.02

February

2005

Use Spatial Statistics to Map Abnormal Averages — discusses surface modeling to characterize the spatial distribution inherent in a data set

B3, Topic 2, S3

SurfaceModeling_Interpolation

Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations

2005.01

January

2005

Bending Our Understanding of Distance — uses effective distance in establishing erosion setback to demonstrate spatial analysis

B3, Topic 2, S2

Distance_EffectiveProximity

Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations

2004.09

September

2004

Use “Shadow Maps” to Understand Overlay Errors  describes how shadow maps of certainty can be used to estimate error and its propagation

B3, Topic 3, Further Reading2

Overlay_CellbyCellCoincidence

Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations

2004.06

June

2004

Computers Quickly Characterize Spatial Coincidence  discusses several human considerations in implementing GIS

B3, Topic 3, S4

Overlay_CellbyCellCoincidence

Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations

2004.05

May

2004

Overlay Operations Feature a Variety of Options  discusses the basic overlaying map operations

B3, Topic 3, S3

Overlay_CellbyCellCoincidence

Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations

2004.04

April

2004

Options Seem Endless When Reclassifying Maps  discusses the basic reclassifying map operations

B3, Topic 3, S2

Reclassify_InitialValue

Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations

2003.10

October

2003

Think with Maps to Evaluate Alternative Routes  describes procedures for comparing routes

B3, Topic 8, S4

Distance_Routing

Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations

2003.09

September

2003

A Recipe for Calibrating and Weighting GIS Model Criteria  identifies procedures for calibrating and weighting map layers in GIS models

B3, Topic 8, S3

Distance_Routing

Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations

2003.08

August

2003

Consider Multi-Criteria When Routing  discusses the construction of a discrete “cost/avoidance” map and optimal path corridors

B3, Topic 8, S2

Distance_Routing

Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations

2003.07

July

2003

A Three-Step Process Identifies Preferred Routes  describes the basic steps in Least Cost Path analysis

B3, Topic 8, S1

Distance_Routing

Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations

2003.04

April

2003

Multiple Methods Help Organize Raster Data  discusses different approaches to storing raster data

B3, Topic 1, Further Reading1

DataConsiderations_Structure

Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations

2003.03

March

2003

Try Vulnerability Maps to Visualize Aesthetics  describes a procedure for deriving an aesthetics map based on visual exposure to pretty and ugly places

B3, Topic 5, Further Reading2

Distance_VisualExposure

Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations

2003.02

February

2003

Use Maps to Assess Visual Vulnerability  discusses a procedure for identifying visually vulnerable areas 

B3, Topic 5, Further Reading1

Distance_VisualExposure

Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations

2003.01

January

2003

Beware of Slope’s Slippery Slope  describes various slope calculations and compares results

B3, Topic 6, Further Reading7

Neighborhood_Configuration

Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations

2002.12

December

2002

Use Surface Area for Realistic Calculations  describes a technique for adjusting planimetric area to surface area considering terrain slope

B3, Topic 6, Further Reading8

Neighborhood_Summary

Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations

2002.10

October

2002

Accumulation Surfaces Connect Bus Riders and Stops  discusses an accumulation surface analysis procedure for linking riders with bus stops

B3, Topic 4, Further Reading8

Distance_Routing

Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations

2001.08

August

2001

Use Exposure Maps and Fat Buttons to Assess Visual Impact  investigates procedures for assessing visual exposure 

B3, Topic 5, S4

Distance_VisualExposure

Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations

2001.07

July

2001

Visual Exposure is in the Eye of the Beholder  describes procedures for assessing visual impact and creating simple models 

B3, Topic 5, S3

Distance_VisualExposure

Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations

2001.06

June

2001

Identify and Use Visual Exposure to Create Viewshed Maps  discusses basic considerations and procedures for establishing visual connectivity 

B3, Topic 5, S2

Distance_VisualExposure

Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations

2001.05

May

2001

Consider Slope and Scenic Beauty in Deriving Hiking Maps  describes a general procedure for weighting friction maps to reflect different objectives

B3, Topic 4, Further Reading7

Distance_Routing

Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations

2001.04

April

2001

Derive and Use Hiking-Time Maps for Off-Road Travel  discusses procedures for establishing hiking-time buffers responding to off-road travel 

B3, Topic 4, Further Reading6

Distance_Routing

Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations

2001.01

January

2001

Create Effective Distance Buffers to Improve Map Accuracy — develops procedures for creating buffers that respond to the relative ease of movement 

B3, Topic 4, S2

Distance_TravelTime

Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations

2000.12

December

2000

Line-of-Sight Buffers Add Intelligent to Maps — describes procedures for creating buffers that track relative visual exposure and noise levels

B3, Topic 5, S1

Distance_VisualExposure

Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations

2000.11

November

2000

Extending GIS Procedures with Variable-Width Buffers  discusses the basic considerations in establishing variable-width buffers that respond to both intervening conditions and the type of connectivity 

B3, Topic 4, S1

Distance_EffectiveProximity

Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations

1999.10

October

1999

Use Statistics to Compare Map Surfaces  describes several techniques for comparing continuous map surfaces 

B3, Topic 10, Further Reading6

Map_ComparisonContinuousData

Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations

1999.09

September

1999

Compare Maps by the Numbers  describes several techniques for comparing discrete maps 

B3, Topic 10, Further Reading5

Map_ComparisonDiscreteData

Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations

1995.021

February

1995

Dodge the GIS Modeling Babble Ground  identifies a Classification Guide for categorizing GIS models

B2, Topic 5, S2

ConceptualFramework_Operations

Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations

1994.09

September

1994

Avoid Dis-Information — describes the calculation of a localized Coefficient of Variance map

B2, Topic 4, S3

Map_Normalization

Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations

1994.08

August

1994

Spawning Uncertainty  identifies a procedure for tracking error propagation in map overlay

B2, Topic 4, S2

Overlay_CellbyCellCoincidence

Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations

1994.07

July

1994

The This, That, There Rule  describes creating a “Shadow Map of Certainty” that characterizes the spatial distribution of probable error

B2, Topic 4, S1

Overlay_CellbyCellCoincidence

Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations

1994.03

March

1994

Maneuvering on GIS’s Sticky Floor  describes Inverse Distance, Kriging, and Minimum Curvature techniques for surface modeling

B2, Topic 2, S3

SurfaceModeling_Interpolation

Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations

1993.01

January

1993

Take a New Look at Visual Connectivity  describes viewshed and visual exposure procedures

B1, Topic 9, S5

Distance_VisualExposure

Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations

1992.12

December

1992

Twists and Contortions Lead to Connectivity  describes procedures for calculating optimal paths and routing corridors

B1, Topic 9, S4

Distance_Routing

Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations

1992.11

November

1992

Rubber Rulers Fit Reality Better  describes procedures for calculating effective distance that considers intervening absolute and relative barriers

B1, Topic 9, S3

Distance_EffectiveProximity

Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations

1992.10

October

1992

Distance Is Simple and Straight Forward  describes simple distance calculation as a propagating wavefront 

B1, Topic 9, S2

Distance_EffectiveProximity

Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations

1992.09

September

1992

There’s More Than One Way to Figure Slope  describes procedures for calculating surface slope and its varied applications

B1, Topic 9, S1

Neighborhood_Configuration

Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations

1992.04

April

1992

If I Hadn’t of Believed It, I Wouldn’t Have Seen It  discusses map-wide overlay techniques and the spatial evaluation of algebraic equations, such as regression

B1, Topic 7, S3

Overlay_MapWide

Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations

1992.03

March

1992

Map Overlay Techniques— there’s more than one  discusses region-wide summary and map coincidence techniques

B1, Topic 7, S2

Overlay_RegionWide

Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations

1992.02

Feb/Jan

1992

Characterizing Spatial Coincidence the Computer’s Way  describes point-by-point overlay techniques

B1, Topic 7, S1

Overlay_CellbyCellCoincidence

Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations

1991.12

December

1991

Analyzing the Non-Analytical  describes how “joint probability of coincidence” and “minimum mapping resolution” can be used to assess results of overlaying maps

B1, Topic 6, S2

Overlay_CellbyCellCoincidence

Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations

1991.11

November

1991

GIS Facilitates Error Assessment  discusses potential sources of error when overlaying maps and how “shadow maps” of error and “fuzzy theory” can shed light on the problem

B1, Topic 6, S1

Overlay_CellbyCellCoincidence

Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations

1991.10

October

1991

Discovering Feature Patterns describes procedures for assessing landscape pattern (Spacing and Contiguity)

B1, Topic 5, S3

Reclassify_Contiguity

Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations

1991.09

September

1991

You Can’t See the Forest for the Trees discusses indices of feature shape (Boundary Configuration and Spatial Integrity)

B1, Topic 5, S2

Reclassify_Shape

Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations

1991.08

August

1991

Need to Ask the Right Questions Takes You Beyond Mapping describes indices of map variability (Neighborhood Complexity and Comparison)

B1, Topic 5, S1

Neighborhood_Summary

Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations

1991.07

July

1991

Special URISA Issue — no BM column; special supplement made available,  A Mathematical Structure for Analyzing Maps— a 1986 journal article establishing a framework for map analysis/modeling

B1, Epilog, S3

ConceptualFramework_Operations

Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations

1990.12

December

1990

I Don’t Do Windows  describes procedures for summarizing weighted roving windows

B1, Topic 3, S4

Neighborhood_Summary

Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations

1990.10

Oct/Nov

1990

Torture Numbers, They’ll Tell you Anything  discusses the underlying theory and basic considerations of spatial interpolation

B1, Topic 3, S3

SurfaceModeling_Interpolation

Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations

1990.08

Aug/Sep

1990

It’s Like the New Math, I am Just Too Old  discusses the concept of calculating a “map derivative” and its use

B1, Topic 3, S2

Neighborhood_Configuration

Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations

1990.06

Jun/July

1990

Imagination is More Important than Information  describes procedures for characterizing surface configuration (slope, aspect and profile)

B1, Topic 3, S1

Neighborhood_Configuration

Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations

1990.04

Apr/May

1990

There’s Only One Problem Having All this Sophisticated Equipment  discusses the basic approaches used for calculating narrowness and visual connectivity

B1, Topic 2, S4

Distance_Narrowness

Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations

1990.02

Feb/Mar

1990

Keep It Simple Stupid (KISS)  describes the use of “accumulation surfaces” for deriving optimal path density and Nth best paths

B1, Topic 2, S3

Distance_AccumulationSurface

Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations

1989.11

Nov/Dec

1989

As the Crow Walks  describes the use of “propagating waves” for calculating effective distance and optimal paths

B1, Topic 2, S2

Distance_EffectiveProximity

Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations

1989.09

Sep/Oct

1989

You Can’t Get There from Here  introduces the similarities and differences between “simple” and “effective” distance measurement

B1, Topic 2, S1

Distance_EffectiveProximity

Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations

2013.05

May

2013

Mixing It up in GIS Modeling’s Kitchen — an overview of map analysis and GIS modeling considerations

B4, Topic 5, S1

Overview

Basic_ConceptsApproach

2013.03

March

2013

Depending on Where is What — develops an organizational structure for spatial statistics

B4, Topic 9, S5

DataConsiderations_Structure

Basic_ConceptsApproach

2011.11

November

2011

Contour Lines versus Color Gradients for Displaying Spatial Information  discusses the similarities and differences between discrete contour line and continuous gradient procedures for visualizing map surfaces

B4, Topic 1, S4

Display_2D3D

Basic_ConceptsApproach

2010.10

October

2010

Putting GIS Modeling Concepts in Their Place  develops a typology of GIS modeling types and characteristics

B4, Topic 5, S4

ConceptualFramework_Modeling

Basic_ConceptsApproach

2009.04

April

2009

What’s Missing in Mapping?  discusses the need for identifying data dispersion as well as average in Thematic Mapping

B4, Topic 4, S1

Overlay_RegionWide

Basic_ConceptsApproach

2004.12

December

2004

Moving Mapping to Analysis of Mapped Data — describes Spatial Analysis and Spatial Statistics as extensions to traditional mapping and statistics

B3, Topic 2, S1

General_Overview

Basic_ConceptsApproach

2003.06

June

2003

Use Mapping “Art” to Visualize Values  describes procedures for generating contour maps

B3, Topic 1, Further Reading2

Display_2D3D

Basic_ConceptsApproach

2001.09

September

2001

Use Polar Variograms to Assess Distance and Direction Dependencies discuses a procedure to incorporate direction as well as distance for assessing spatial dependency

B3, Topic 9, Further Reading10

SurfaceModeling_Interpolation

Basic_ConceptsApproach

1999.01

January

1999

Extending Spatial Dependency to Maps  describes a technique for generating a map of spatial autocorrelation

B3, Topic 9, Further Reading9

SurfaceModeling_Interpolation

Basic_ConceptsApproach

1998.12

December

1998

Measuring Spatial Dependency  describes the basic measures of autocorrelation 

B3, Topic 9, Further Reading8

SurfaceModeling_Interpolation

Basic_ConceptsApproach

1998.11

November

1998

Unlocking the Keystone Concept of Spatial Dependency  discusses spatial dependency and illustrates the effects of different spatial arrangements of the same set of data

B3, Topic 9, Further Reading7

SurfaceModeling_Interpolation

Basic_ConceptsApproach

1998.07

July

1998

Explore Data Space  establishes the concept of "data space" and how mapped data conforms to this fundamental view

B3, Topic 10, Further Reading3

Processing_Approaches

Basic_ConceptsApproach

1998.06

June

1998

Link Data and Geographic Distributions  describes the direct link between numeric and geographic distributions 

B3, Topic 10, Further Reading2

Processing_Approaches

Basic_ConceptsApproach

1998.05

May

1998

Beware the Slippery Surfaces of GIS Modeling  discusses the relationships among maps, map surfaces and data distributions

B3, Topic 10, Further Reading1

Processing_Approaches

Basic_ConceptsApproach

1998.01

January

1998

Analyzing Stepped Accumulation Surfaces  describes a technique for forcing an optimal path through a series of points

B3, Topic 8, Further Reading7

Distance_AccumulationSurface

Basic_ConceptsApproach

1997.12

December

1997

Determining Optimal Path Corridors  describes a technique for determining the set of nth best paths between two points

B3, Topic 8, Further Reading6

Distance_AccumulationSurface

Basic_ConceptsApproach

1997.11

November

1997

Analyzing Accumulation Surfaces  describes how two surfaces can be analyzed to determine the relative travel-time advantages 

B3, Topic 8, Further Reading5

Distance_AccumulationSurface

Basic_ConceptsApproach

1997.10

October

1997

Building Accumulation Surfaces  reviews how proximity analysis and effective distance is used to construct accumulation surfaces

B3, Topic 8, Further Reading4

Distance_AccumulationSurface

Basic_ConceptsApproach

1997.07

July

1997

Uncovering the Mysteries of Spatial Autocorrelation  describes approaches used in assessing spatial autocorrelation

B3, Topic 9, Further Reading6

SurfaceModeling_Interpolation

Basic_ConceptsApproach

1997.05

May

1997

Depending on the Data  discusses the fundamental concepts of spatial dependency

B3, Topic 9, Further Reading5

SurfaceModeling_Interpolation

Basic_ConceptsApproach

1997.04

April

1997

Comparing Map Errors  describes how normalized maps of error can be used to visualize the differences in error surfaces

B3, Topic 9, Further Reading2

SurfaceModeling_Accuracy

Basic_ConceptsApproach

1997.03

March

1997

Move Beyond a Map Full of Errors  discusses a technique for generating a "shadow map" of error

B3, Topic 9, Further Reading1

SurfaceModeling_Accuracy

Basic_ConceptsApproach

1997.02

February

1997

Justifiable Interpolation  describes the "Residual Analysis" procedure for assessing interpolation performance

B3, Topic 9, S4

SurfaceModeling_Accuracy

Basic_ConceptsApproach

1997.01

January

1997

Designer Samples  describes different sampling patterns and their relative advantages  

B3, Topic 9, Further Reading4

SurfaceModeling_PointSampling

Basic_ConceptsApproach

1996.12

December

1996

What's the Point? discusses the general considerations in point sampling design

B3, Topic 9, Further Reading3

SurfaceModeling_PointSampling

Basic_ConceptsApproach

1996.03

March

1996

Classifying the Analytical Capabilities of GIS  discusses the differences and similarities in the Berry and Tomlin map analysis classification schemes

B2, Topic 7, S2

ConceptualFramework_Operations

Basic_ConceptsApproach

1995.10

October

1995

GIS and Remote Sensing Share a Lofty Marriage  identifies the basic concepts, principles and theoretical underpinnings of Remote Sensing (RS) technology

B2, Topic 9, S2

SpatialDataMining_Classification

Basic_ConceptsApproach

1994.10

October

1994

Empirical Verification Assesses Mapping Performance — describes procedures for assessing mapping performance through Error Matrix (discrete) and Residual Analysis (continuous)

B2, Topic 4, S4

DataConsiderations_Accuracy

Basic_ConceptsApproach

1994.02

February

1994

Surf’s Up  fitting continuous map surfaces to geographic data distributions

B2, Topic 2, S2

SurfaceModeling_Interpolation

Basic_ConceptsApproach

1994.01

January

1994

Averages Are Mean  compares nonspatial and spatial distributions of field data

B2, Topic 2, S1

General_Overview

Basic_ConceptsApproach

1993.02

February

1993

GIS Mirrors Perceptions of Decision Criteria describes a flowcharting procedure that expresses GIS model logic in a clear and concise form

B1, Topic 10, S1

ConceptualFramework_Modeling

Basic_ConceptsApproach

2013.09

September

2013

The Spatial Key to Seeing the Big Picture — describes a five step process for generating grid map layers from spatially tagged data

B4, Topic 9, Further Reading3

DataConsiderations_Structure

Basic_ConceptsData

2013.06

June

2013

Setting a Place at the Table for Grid-based Data — describes the differences between individual file and table storage approaches

B4, Topic 1, S4

DataConsiderations_Structure

Basic_ConceptsData

2012.10

October

2012

To Boldly Go Where No Map Has Gone Before identifies Lat/Lon as a Universal Spatial Key for joining database tables

B4, Topic 9, S4

DataConsiderations_Structure

Basic_ConceptsData

2012.09

September

2012

Organizing Geographic Space for Effective Analysis an overview of data organization for grid-based map analysis

B4, Topic 1, S1

DataConsiderations_Structure

Basic_ConceptsData

2011.12

December

2011

VtoR and Back! describes various techniques for converting between vector and raster data types

B4, Topic 1, S3

DataConsiderations_Structure

Basic_ConceptsData

2011.10

October

2011

The Universal Key for Unlocking GIS’s Full Potential outlines a global referencing system approach compatible with standard DBMS systems

B4, Topic 7, S6

DataConsiderations_Structure

Basic_ConceptsData

2009.12

December

2009

From a Map Pancake to a Soufflé — continues the discussion of concepts and configuration of a 3D GIS

B4, Topic 10, Further Reading1

DataConsiderations_Structure

Basic_ConceptsData

2009.11

November

2009

Thinking Outside the Box — discusses concepts and configuration of 3-dimensional geography

B4, Topic 10, S4

DataConsiderations_Structure

Basic_ConceptsData

2009.10

October

2009

Visualizing a Three-dimensional Reality — uses visual connectivity to introduce and reinforce the paradigm of three-dimension geography

B4, Topic 10, S3

DataConsiderations_Structure

Basic_ConceptsData

2008.02

February

2008

How to Determine Exactly “Where Is What”  discusses the levels of precision (correct placement) and accuracy (correct characterization)

B4, Topic 5, S2

DataConsiderations_Accuracy

Basic_ConceptsData

2007.05

May

2007

Getting the Numbers Right  describes a classification scheme for map analysis operations based on how map values are retrieved for processing (Local, Focal, Zonal)

B4, Topic 5, S3

DataConsiderations_Structure

Basic_ConceptsData

2007.04

April

2007

Geo-Referencing Is the Cornerstone of GIS  describes current and alternative approaches for referencing geographic and abstract space

B4, Intro,S3

DataConsiderations_Structure

Basic_ConceptsData

2007.03

March

2007

Understand Resolution to “Think with Maps”  discusses the factors that determine the “informational scale” digital maps

B4, Intro, S2

DataConsiderations_Accuracy

Basic_ConceptsData

2007.02

February

2007

Finding Common Ground in Paper and Digital Worlds  describes the similarities and differences in information and organization between traditional paper and digital maps

B4, Intro, S1

DataConsiderations_Structure

Basic_ConceptsData

2002.07

July

2002

Grids and Lattices Build Visualizations  describes Lattice and Grid forms of map surface display

B3, Topic 1, S1

Display_2D3D

Basic_ConceptsData

1995.11

November

1995

Heads-Up and Feet-Down Digitizing  discusses the design components of a GIS/GPS/RS field unit

B2, Topic 9, S3

DataConsiderations_Input

Basic_ConceptsData

1995.09

September

1995

Put Things in Their Proper Places with GPS  identifies the basic concepts, principles and theoretical underpinnings of the Global Positioning System (GPS)

B2, Topic 9, S1

DataConsiderations_Input

Basic_ConceptsData

1995.08

August

1995

Rasterized Lines and Vectorized Cells describes specialized offshoots of traditional raster and vector data formats

B2, Topic 6, S4

DataConsiderations_Structure

Basic_ConceptsData

1995.07

July

1995

How are your QUADS and TINS?  describes alternative Quadtree and Triangular Irregular Network data formats

B2, Topic 6, S3

DataConsiderations_Structure

Basic_ConceptsData

1995.06

June

1995

Raster is Faster, but Vector is Correcter   describes the structuring of traditional Vector data using explicit topology linking spatial and attribute tables

B2, Topic 6, S2

DataConsiderations_Structure

Basic_ConceptsData

1995.05

May

1995

Are You a GIS Dead Head?  describes the structuring of traditional Raster data using implicit topology based on the row/column positioning in a matrix

B2, Topic 6, S1

DataConsiderations_Structure

Basic_ConceptsData

1994.12

December

1994

Resolving Map Detail  discusses the four basic types Map Resolution (Spatial, Minimum Mapping, Thematic, Temporal) that define the level of detail in a digital map as dramatically different from the traditional concept of Map Scale

B2, Topic 7, S3

DataConsiderations_Accuracy

Basic_ConceptsData

1994.11

November

1994

What Does Your Computer Really Think of Your Map?  discusses Spatial Topology through the differences among Graphics Packages, Mapping Software, Spatial Database Management Systems, and GIS Analysis/Modeling Systems

B2, Topic 7, S1

DataConsiderations_Structure

Basic_ConceptsData

1993.09

September

1993

Terminology Accelerates Your Intellectual Depletion Allowance  introduces the concepts and organization used in GIS databases comprised of multiple map layers

B1, Intro, S3

DataConsiderations_Structure

Basic_ConceptsData

1993.08

August

1993

GIS Maps Are Dumb  compares the basic Vector and Raster data structure approaches for storing individual map layers

B1, Intro, S2

DataConsiderations_Structure

Basic_ConceptsData

1993.07

July

1993

Coming to Terms with Terminology  describes the underlying theory of how point, line and areal features are stored in Vector and Raster GISs

B1, Intro, S1

DataConsiderations_Structure

Basic_ConceptsData

1993.03

March

1993

Effective Standards Required to Go Beyond Mapping  identifies and describes four levels of GIS standards (data Exchange, Geographic, Algorithmic and Interpretational)

B1, Topic 10, S2

DataConsiderations_Accuracy

Basic_ConceptsData

1989.07

Jul/Aug

1989

GIS Technology Is Technical Oz  discusses and compares the relative advantages/disadvantages between Vector and Raster processing

B1, Topic 1, S3

DataConsiderations_Structure

Basic_ConceptsData

1989.05

May

V2-3

1989

 It Depends: Implications of data structure  discusses and compares the similarities and differences between Vector and Raster data structure applications

B1, Topic 1, S2

DataConsiderations_Structure

Basic_ConceptsData

1989.03

March

V2-2

1989

Maps as Data: a 'Map-ematics' is Emerging  describes the differences between Discrete and Continuous mapped data

B1, Topic 1, S1

DataConsiderations_Structure

Basic_ConceptsData

2013.12

December

2013

Where Do We Go from Here?  Swan Song after 25 years of Beyond Mapping columns

Epilog, S2

Overview

Basic_Discussion

2013.11

November

2013

The Good, the Bad and the Ugly Sides of GIS  discusses the potential of geotechnology to hinder (or even thwart) societal progress

Epilog, S1

Overview

Basic_Discussion

2011.01

January

2011

Which Direction Are You Headed?  describes four perspectives on the trailing “S” in the GIS acronym from a GIS’ers Perspective

B4, Topic 6, S1

Education_Approaches

Basic_Discussion

2009.09

September

2009

GIS and the Cloud Computing Conundrum — describes cloud computing with particular attention to its geotechnology expression

B4, Topic 10, S2

Processing_Approaches

Basic_Discussion

2009.03

March

2009

What’s in a Name  suggests and defines the new more comprehensive term “Geotechnology”

B4, Intro, Further Reading2

General_Overview

Basic_Discussion

2009.02

February

2009

Is it Soup Yet?  describes the evolution in GIS definitions and terminology

B4, Intro, Further Reading1

General_Overview

Basic_Discussion

2008.01

January

2008

Explore the Softer Side of GIS — describes a Manual GIS (circa 1950) and the relationship between social science conceptual frameworks for understanding/judgment in GIS modeling  

B4, Topic 5, Further Reading1

General_Historical

Basic_Discussion

2007.12

December

2007

Lumpers and Splitters Propel GIS — describes the two camps of GIS (GeoExploration and GeoScience)

B4, Topic 6, Further Reading1

General_Overview

Basic_Discussion

2007.11

November

2007

Throwing the Baby Out with the Bath Water  discusses the information lost in aggregating field data and assigning typical values to polygons (desktop mapping)

B4, Topic 4, S2

SurfaceModeling_Interpolation

Basic_Discussion

2007.10

October

2007

Get a Consistent Statistical Picture  describes creation of a Standardized Map Variable surface using Median and Quartile Range

B4, Topic 4,  Further Reading1

Map_Normalization

Basic_Discussion

2007.09

September

2007

Normally Things Aren’t Normal  discusses the appropriateness of using traditional “normal” and percentile statistics

B4, Topic 4, S3

Map_Normalization

Basic_Discussion

2007.08

August

2007

GIS Innovation Drives Its Evolution — discusses the cyclic nature of GIS innovation (Mapping, Structure and Analysis)

B4, Topic 10, S1

General_Historical

Basic_Discussion

2007.01

January

2007

A Multifaceted GIS Community — investigates the technical shifts and cultural impacts of the rapidly expanding GIS tent of users, application developers and tool programmers 

B3, Epilog, S2

General_Historical

Basic_Discussion

2006.12

December

2006

Pathways to GIS — explores different paths of GIS adoption for five disciplines (Natural Resources, Facilities Management, Public Health, Business and Precision Agriculture)

B3, Epilog, S1

General_Historical

Basic_Discussion

2006.11

November

2006

Contemporary GIS and Future Directions — discusses contemporary GIS and probable future directions (Multimedia Mapping and Spatial Reasoning/Dialog)

B3, Intro, S2

General_Historical

Basic_Discussion

2006.10

October

2006

Early GIS Technology and Its Expression — traces the early phases of GIS technology (Computer Mapping, Spatial Database Management and Map Analysis/Modeling)

B3, Intro, S1

General_Historical

Basic_Discussion

2005.08

August

2005

Taking Distance to the Edge — discusses advance distance operations

B3, Topic 4, Further Reading3

Distance_EffectiveProximity

Basic_Discussion

2004.03

March

2004

Use a Map-ematical Framework for GIS Modeling  describes a conceptual structure for map analysis operations and GIS modeling 

B3, Topic 3, S1

ConceptualFramework_Operations

Basic_Discussion

2002.08

August

2002

Maps Are Numbers First, Pictures Later  discusses the numeric and geographic characteristics of map values

B3, Topic 1, S2

DataConsiderations_Accuracy

Basic_Discussion

1999.12

December

1999

Can Predictable Maps Work for You?  describes a procedure for deriving a spatial prediction model 

B3, Topic 10, Further Reading8

SpatialDataMining_Regression

Basic_Discussion

1999.11

November

1999

Use Scatterplots to Understand Map Correlation  discusses the underlying concepts in assessing correlation among maps

B3, Topic 10, Further Reading7

SpatialDataMining_Regression

Basic_Discussion

1999.04

April

1999

GIS Represents Spatial Patterns and Relationships  discusses the important differences among discrete mapping , continuous map surfaces and map analysis

B3, Topic 2, Further Reading1

Processing_Approaches

Basic_Discussion

1999.03

March

1999

Observe the Evolving GIS Mindset  illustrates the "map-ematical" approach to analyzing mapped data 

B3, Epilog, Further Reading2

Processing_Approaches

Basic_Discussion

1999.02

February

1999

Is GIS Technology Ahead of Science? — discusses several issues surrounding the differences in the treatment of non-spatial and spatial data

B3, Epilog, Further Reading1

Processing_Approaches

Basic_Discussion

1998.10

October

1998

GIS Data Are Rarely Normal  describes the basic non-spatial descriptive statistics

B3, Topic 9, S1

General_Overview

Basic_Discussion

1998.09

September

1998

GIS Software's Changing Roles  discusses the evolution of GIS software and identifies important trends

B3, Intro, Further Reading1

General_Historical

Basic_Discussion

1997.08

August

1997

Varied Applications Drive GIS Perspectives  discusses how map analysis is enlarging the traditional view of mapping

B3, Epilog, Further Reading4

ConceptualFramework_Modeling

Basic_Discussion

1996.11

November

1996

Does Anyone Object?  discusses some concerns of object-oriented GIS

B3, Intro, Further Reading4

General_Historical

Basic_Discussion

1996.10

October

1996

Spatial Objects—the Parse and Parcel of GIS?  discusses database objects and their map expressions

B3, Intro, Further Reading3

General_Historical

Basic_Discussion

1996.09

September

1996

What Is Object-Oriented Technology Anyway?  establishes the basic concepts in object-oriented technology

B3, Intro, Further Reading2

General_Historical

Basic_Discussion

1996.08

August

1996

Developing an Understanding GIS  describes the translation of mapped data to spatial information for decision-making

B2, Epilog, S2

General_Overview

Basic_Discussion

1996.07

July

1996

Don’t Forget the Human Factor: an Experiential GIS  describes an early experience (1980) in the application of GIS to land use planning involving the spatial expression and public hearing of a Comprehensive Plan of Development and Conservation

B2, Epilog, S1

General_Historical

Basic_Discussion

1996.06

June

1996

Analyzing Spatial Dependency between Maps  investigates multivariate analysis involving the coincidence of two or more map layers

B2, Topic 10, S3

General_Overview

Basic_Discussion

1996.05

May

1996

Analyzing Spatial Dependency within a Map  investigates univariate analysis involving spatial relationships within a single map layer

B2, Topic 10, S2

General_Overview

Basic_Discussion

1996.04

April

1996

The Unique Character of Spatial Analysis  discusses spatial analysis as deriving new spatial information based on geographic dependence within and among map variables

B2, Topic 10, S1

General_Overview

Basic_Discussion

1995.04

April

1995

Explore a New Spatial Paradigm  discusses the movement from mapping and spatial inventories by technologists to spatial reasoning and dialog involving enlightened users in development of solutions to complex spatial problems

B2, Intro, S2

General_Overview

Basic_Discussion

1995.03

March

1995

Is the GIS Cart in Front of the Horse?  discusses driving forces, trends and forecasts in contemporary GIS from the perspective of modeling interrelationships among mapped variables

B2, Intro, S1

General_Overview

Basic_Discussion

1995.022

February

1995

Layers to Tapestry (supplement) — describes an interactive environment for diagramming GIS Logic and processing flows

B2, Topic 5, S3

ConceptualFramework_Modeling

Basic_Discussion

1995.01

January

1995

What’s in a Model?  discusses a conceptual framework for GIS model types and characteristics

B2, Topic 5, S1

ConceptualFramework_Operations

Basic_Discussion

1994.06

June

1994

Build It and They Will Come  describes the tactical and conceptual considerations in GIS implementation

B2, Topic 3, S3

General_Overview

Basic_Discussion

1994.05

May

1994

What Can GIS Do for You?  identifies and discusses the seven basic types of questions addressed by GIS technology

B2, Topic 3, S2

General_Overview

Basic_Discussion

1994.04

April

1994

Question GIS before You Start  discusses the importance of an Information Needs Assessment (INA) and a GIS Reality Assessment (GRA)

B2, Topic 3, S1

General_Overview

Basic_Discussion

1993.12

December

1993

Consider a GIS Modeler’s Toolkit  discusses an Object-Oriented Programming System approach to GIS model development

B2, Topic 1, S3

General_Historical

Basic_Discussion

1993.11

November

1993

Moving Toward a Humane GIS  describes an interactive link between GIS model logic and code

B2, Topic 1, S2

General_Overview

Basic_Discussion

1993.10

October

1993

Distinguishing Data from Information and Understanding  considers the fundamental concepts behind moving mapped data to information and ultimately to understanding

B2, Topic 1, S1

General_Overview

Basic_Discussion

1992.07

July

1992

Bringing the GIS Paradigm to Closure — discusses the evolution and probable future of GIS technology

B1, Epilog, S1

Future_Directions

Basic_Discussion

1992.06

June

1992

GIS Is Never Having to Say You’re Sorry  discusses the human and organizational considerations in adopting GIS technology

B1, Topic 8, S2

General_Overview

Basic_Discussion

1992.05

May

1992

Both Dreams and Nightmares Are Born of Frustration  discusses the limitations of traditional cost/benefit analysis in evaluating the adoption of a radically new technology like GIS

B1, Topic 8, S1

General_Overview

Basic_Discussion

1991.06

June

1991

Frankly My Dear, I Don’t Give a Damn  discusses how GIS modeling and spatial reasoning are changing policy formation and decision-making

B1, Topic 4, S4

General_Overview

Basic_Discussion

1991.05

May

1991

Who Says You Can’t Teach an Old Dog New Tricks?  describes the basic concepts and approaches used in GIS modeling

B1, Topic 4, S3

General_Overview

Basic_Discussion

1991.04

Apr/Mar

1991

What’s Needed to Go Beyond Mapping  lists and describes the analytical tools needed to go beyond mapping

B1, Topic 4, S2

ConceptualFramework_Operations

Basic_Discussion

1991.02

Feb/Jan

1991

Technobabble  discusses the radical changes GIS technology and the digital map are bringing to traditional mapping

B1, Topic 4, S1

General_Overview

Basic_Discussion

2008.11

November

2008

Discover the “Miracles” in Mapping Data Clusters — describes the use of “clustering” to identify inherent groupings of similar data patterns 

B4, Topic 7, S5

SpatialDataMining_Clustering

GeoBusiness_DataGrouping

2008.10

October

2008

Get “Map-ematical” to Identify Data Zones — describes the use of “level-slicing” for classifying locations with a specified data pattern

B4, Topic 7, Further Reading2

SpatialDataMining_Classification

GeoBusiness_DataGrouping

2008.09

September

2008

Use Map Analysis to Characterize Data Groups — describes the use of “data distance” to derive similarity among the data patterns in a set of map layers

B4, Topic 7, S4

SpatialDataMining_Similarity

GeoBusiness_DataGrouping