Beyond Mapping Compilation Series
by
Joseph K. Berry
…Beyond Mapping
columns appearing
in GeoWorld (formally GIS World) magazine
from March 1989
through December 2013.
Most
(click to
access additional Chronological, Operations, Interactive and Index
Listings with hyperlinks to individual Beyond Mapping columns)
(click for a hardcopy version of this
document posted at http://www.innovativegis.com/basis/BeyondMappingSeries/)
______________________________________________________________
Applications Listing
with hyperlinks to individual Beyond Mapping columns
The following Application Listing contains
all of Beyond Mapping (BM) columns appearing in GeoWorld from 1989 through 2013
alphabetically sorted into the twentythree major application groupings
identified below (< click> on any
of the items to jump to that grouping)—
Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations (70 columns) 
NaturalResources_EmergencyResponse (7 columns) 
Basic_ConceptsApproach (32 columns) 
NaturalResources_Harvesting (3 columns) 
Basic_ConceptsData (29 columns) 
NaturalResources_Planning (9 columns) 
Basic_Discussion (51 columns) 
NaturalResources_Suitability (8 columns) 

NaturalResources_WildFire (5 columns) 
GeoBusiness_DataGrouping (4 columns) 

GeoBusiness_InStoreMovement (3 columns) 
PrecisionAgriculture_Analysis (8 columns) 
GeoBusiness_RetailMarketing (7 columns) 
PrecisionAgriculture_Process (1 column) 
GeoBusiness_SurfaceModeling (2 columns) 

GeoBusiness_TravelTime (2 columns) 
Terrain_Analysis (11 columns) 


GIS_Education (14 columns) 
Video_Mapping (3 columns) 

VirtualReality_Mapping (3 columns) 
Infrastructure_Pipeline (6 columns) 

Infrastructure_Routing (4 columns) 

Note: The colors in
column 1 and 5 indicate the book— blue= Book IV, GIS Modeling;
Salmon= Book III, Map Analysis;
green= Book II, Spatial
Reasoning; and, Grey= Book I, Beyond Mapping. When viewing the results of sorting on
Groupings of Approaches and Operations or Application Areas the colors are helpful
in quickly identifying the Book associated with each record (original Beyond
Mapping column) appearing in the reorganized listing.
Date Code (Col 1) 
Month (Col 2) 
Year (Col 3) 
Column
Title/Description (Col 4) 
Book/ Topic/Section (Col 5) 
Groupings of Operations (Col 6) 
Groupings of Applications (Col 7) 
2013.10 
October 
2013 
Laying
the Foundation for SpatialSTEM: Spatial Mathematics, Map Algebra and
Map Analysis — discusses the conceptual foundation and intellectual
shifts needed for SpatialSTEM 
Topic 9, S6 
ConceptualFramework_Operations 

2013.02 
February 
2013 
Recasting
Map Analysis Operations for General Consumption — reorganizes
ArcGIS’s Spatial Analyst tools into the SpatialSTEM framework that extends
traditional math/stat procedures 
B4, Topic 9, Further Reading4 
Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations 

2012.07 
July 
2012 
NarrowingIn
on Absurd Gerrymanders — discusses how a Narrowness Index (NI) can be
applied to assess redistricting configurations 
B4, Topic 2, S5 
Reclassify_shape 
Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations 
2011.06 
June 
2011 
Breaking
Away from Breakpoints — describes the use of curvefitting
to derive continuous equations for suitability model ratings 
B4, Topic 4, Further Reading3 
Map_Normalization 
Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations 
2011.05 
May 
2011 
Correlating
Maps and a Numerical Mindset — describes a Spatially
Localized Correlation procedure for mapping the mutual relationship between
two map variables 
B4, Topic 4, S4 
SpatialDataMining_PredictiveStatistics 
Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations 
2011.04 
April 
2011 
Comparing
Apples and Oranges — describes a Standard Normal Variable
(SNV) procedure for normalizing maps for comparison 
B4, Topic 4, Further Reading2 
Map_Normalization 
Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations 
2011.03 
March 
2011 
A
Dynamic Tuneup for Distance Calculations — describes the algorithms
for dynamic effective distance procedures involving intervening conditions 
B4, Topic 2, S2 
Distance_EffectiveProximity 
Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations 
2006.07 
July 
2006 
Statistically
Compare Discrete Maps — discusses procedures for comparing
discrete maps 
B3, Topic 10, S1 
Map_ComparisonDiscreteData 
Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations 
2006.06 
June 
2006 
Under
the Hood of Spatial Interpolation — investigates
the basic concepts in IDW and Kriging interpolation procedures 
B3, Topic
9, S3 
SurfaceModeling_Interpolation 
Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations 
2006.05 
May 
2006 
The
Average Is Hardly Anywhere — discusses the difference between
spatial and nonspatial data distributions 
B3, Topic
9, S2 
SurfaceModeling_Interpolation 
Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations 
2006.04 
April 
2006 
Key
Concepts Characterize Unique Conditions — describes a technique for handling
unique combinations of map layers 
B3, Topic 3, Further Reading1 
Overlay_CellbyCellCoincidence 
Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations 
2005.12 
December 
2005 
Filtering
for the Good Stuff — investigates a couple of spatial filters for
assessing neighborhood connectivity and variability 
B3, Topic 6 , Further Reading3 
Neighborhood_Summary 
Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations 
2005.11 
November 
2005 
Milking
Spatial Context Information — describes a procedure for deriving
a customer density surface 
B3, Topic 6, S2 
Neighborhood_Summary 
Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations 
2005.07 
July 
2005 
Calculate
and Compare to Find Effective Proximity — describes how effective
proximity is calculated 
B3, Topic 4, Further Reading2 
Distance_EffectiveProximity 
Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations 
2005.06 
June 
2005 
Extend
Simple Proximity to Effective Movement — discusses
the concept of effective distance responding to relative and absolute
barriers 
B3, Topic 4, S4 
Distance_EffectiveProximity 
Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations 
2005.05 
May 
2005 
Use
Cells and Rings to Calculate Simple Proximity — describes how
simple proximity is calculated 
B3, Topic 4, Further Reading1 
Distance_EffectiveProximity 
Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations 
2005.04 
April 
2005 
Measuring
Distance Is Neither Here nor There — discusses the basic concepts
of distance and proximity 
B3, Topic 4, S3 
Distance_EffectiveProximity 
Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations 
2005.03 
March 
2005 
Making
Space for Mapped Data — investigates the link between geographic
space and data space for mapping data patterns 
B3, Topic 2, S4 
SpatialDataMining_Clustering 
Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations 
2005.02 
February 
2005 
Use
Spatial Statistics to Map Abnormal Averages — discusses surface
modeling to characterize the spatial distribution inherent in a data set 
B3, Topic 2, S3 
SurfaceModeling_Interpolation 
Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations 
2005.01 
January 
2005 
Bending
Our Understanding of Distance — uses effective distance in
establishing erosion setback to demonstrate spatial analysis 
B3, Topic 2, S2 
Distance_EffectiveProximity 
Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations 
2004.09 
September 
2004 
Use
“Shadow Maps” to Understand Overlay Errors — describes
how shadow maps of certainty can be used to estimate error and its
propagation 
B3, Topic 3, Further Reading2 
Overlay_CellbyCellCoincidence 
Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations 
2004.06 
June 
2004 
Computers
Quickly Characterize Spatial Coincidence — discusses
several human considerations in implementing 
B3, Topic 3, S4 
Overlay_CellbyCellCoincidence 
Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations 
2004.05 
May 
2004 
Overlay
Operations Feature a Variety of Options — discusses
the basic overlaying map operations 
B3, Topic 3, S3 
Overlay_CellbyCellCoincidence 
Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations 
2004.04 
April 
2004 
Options
Seem Endless When Reclassifying Maps — discusses the basic reclassifying
map operations 
B3, Topic 3, S2 
Reclassify_InitialValue 
Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations 
2003.10 
October 
2003 
Think
with Maps to Evaluate Alternative Routes — describes
procedures for comparing routes 
B3, Topic 8, S4 
Distance_Routing 
Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations 
2003.09 
September 
2003 
A
Recipe for Calibrating and Weighting GIS Model Criteria — identifies
procedures for calibrating and weighting map layers in GIS models 
B3, Topic 8, S3 
Distance_Routing 
Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations 
2003.08 
August 
2003 
Consider
MultiCriteria When Routing — discusses
the construction of a discrete “cost/avoidance” map and optimal path
corridors 
B3, Topic 8, S2 
Distance_Routing 
Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations 
2003.07 
July 
2003 
A
ThreeStep Process Identifies Preferred Routes — describes
the basic steps in Least Cost Path analysis 
B3, Topic 8, S1 
Distance_Routing 
Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations 
2003.04 
April 
2003 
Multiple
Methods Help Organize Raster Data — discusses different approaches to
storing raster data 
B3, Topic 1, Further Reading1 
DataConsiderations_Structure 
Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations 
2003.03 
March 
2003 
Try
Vulnerability Maps to Visualize Aesthetics — describes
a procedure for deriving an aesthetics map based on visual exposure to pretty
and ugly places 
B3, Topic
5, Further Reading2 
Distance_VisualExposure 
Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations 
2003.02 
February 
2003 
Use
Maps to Assess Visual Vulnerability — discusses a procedure for
identifying visually vulnerable areas 
B3, Topic
5, Further Reading1 
Distance_VisualExposure 
Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations 
2003.01 
January 
2003 
Beware
of Slope’s Slippery Slope — describes various slope calculations
and compares results 
B3, Topic
6, Further Reading7 
Neighborhood_Configuration 
Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations 
2002.12 
December 
2002 
Use
Surface Area for Realistic Calculations — describes
a technique for adjusting planimetric area to surface area considering
terrain slope 
B3, Topic
6, Further Reading8 
Neighborhood_Summary 
Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations 
2002.10 
October 
2002 
Accumulation
Surfaces Connect Bus Riders and Stops — discusses an accumulation surface
analysis procedure for linking riders with bus stops 
B3, Topic 4, Further Reading8 
Distance_Routing 
Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations 
2001.08 
August 
2001 
Use
Exposure Maps and Fat Buttons to Assess Visual Impact — investigates
procedures for assessing visual exposure 
B3, Topic
5, S4 
Distance_VisualExposure 
Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations 
2001.07 
July 
2001 
Visual
Exposure is in the Eye of the Beholder — describes procedures for assessing
visual impact and creating simple models 
B3, Topic
5, S3 
Distance_VisualExposure 
Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations 
2001.06 
June 
2001 
Identify
and Use Visual Exposure to Create Viewshed Maps — discusses
basic considerations and procedures for establishing visual connectivity 
B3, Topic
5, S2 
Distance_VisualExposure 
Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations 
2001.05 
May 
2001 
Consider
Slope and Scenic Beauty in Deriving Hiking Maps — describes a general procedure for
weighting friction maps to reflect different objectives 
B3, Topic 4, Further Reading7 
Distance_Routing 
Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations 
2001.04 
April 
2001 
Derive
and Use HikingTime Maps for OffRoad Travel — discusses procedures for
establishing hikingtime buffers responding to offroad travel 
B3, Topic 4, Further Reading6 
Distance_Routing 
Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations 
2001.01 
January 
2001 
Create
Effective Distance Buffers to Improve Map Accuracy — develops
procedures for creating buffers that respond to the relative ease of
movement 
B3, Topic 4, S2 
Distance_TravelTime 
Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations 
2000.12 
December 
2000 
LineofSight
Buffers Add Intelligent to Maps — describes procedures
for creating buffers that track relative visual exposure and noise levels 
B3, Topic 5, S1 
Distance_VisualExposure 
Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations 
2000.11 
November 
2000 
Extending
GIS Procedures with VariableWidth Buffers — discusses
the basic considerations in establishing variablewidth buffers that respond
to both intervening conditions and the type of connectivity 
B3, Topic 4, S1 
Distance_EffectiveProximity 
Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations 
1999.10 
October 
1999 
Use
Statistics to Compare Map Surfaces
— describes several techniques for comparing continuous map
surfaces 
B3, Topic 10, Further Reading6 
Map_ComparisonContinuousData 
Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations 
1999.09 
September 
1999 
Compare Maps by the Numbers
— describes several techniques for comparing discrete maps 
B3, Topic 10, Further Reading5 
Map_ComparisonDiscreteData 
Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations 
1995.021 
February 
1995 
Dodge
the GIS Modeling Babble Ground — identifies a Classification Guide
for categorizing GIS models 
B2, Topic 5, S2 
ConceptualFramework_Operations 
Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations 
1994.09 
September 
1994 
Avoid
DisInformation — describes
the calculation of a localized Coefficient of Variance map 
B2, Topic 4, S3 
Map_Normalization 
Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations 
1994.08 
August 
1994 
Spawning
Uncertainty — identifies a procedure for
tracking error propagation in map overlay 
B2, Topic 4, S2 
Overlay_CellbyCellCoincidence 
Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations 
1994.07 
July 
1994 
The
This, That, There Rule — describes creating a “Shadow Map of Certainty” that
characterizes the spatial distribution of probable error 
B2, Topic 4, S1 
Overlay_CellbyCellCoincidence 
Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations 
1994.03 
March 
1994 
Maneuvering
on GIS’s Sticky Floor — describes Inverse
Distance, Kriging, and Minimum Curvature techniques for surface modeling 
B2, Topic 2, S3 
SurfaceModeling_Interpolation 
Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations 
1993.01 
January 
1993 
Take
a New Look at Visual Connectivity — describes
viewshed and visual exposure procedures 
B1, Topic 9, S5 
Distance_VisualExposure 
Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations 
1992.12 
December 
1992 
Twists
and Contortions Lead to Connectivity — describes
procedures for calculating optimal paths and routing corridors 
B1, Topic 9, S4 
Distance_Routing 
Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations 
1992.11 
November 
1992 
Rubber
Rulers Fit Reality Better — describes procedures
for calculating effective distance that considers intervening absolute and
relative barriers 
B1, Topic 9, S3 
Distance_EffectiveProximity 
Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations 
1992.10 
October 
1992 
Distance
Is Simple and Straight Forward — describes simple distance
calculation as a propagating wavefront

B1, Topic 9, S2 
Distance_EffectiveProximity 
Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations 
1992.09 
September 
1992 
There’s
More Than One Way to Figure Slope — describes procedures for calculating
surface slope and its varied applications 
B1, Topic 9, S1 
Neighborhood_Configuration 
Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations 
1992.04 
April 
1992 
If
I Hadn’t of Believed It, I Wouldn’t Have Seen It — discusses mapwide
overlay techniques and the spatial evaluation of algebraic equations, such as
regression 
B1, Topic 7, S3 
Overlay_MapWide 
Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations 
1992.03 
March 
1992 
Map
Overlay Techniques— there’s more than one — discusses regionwide summary and map coincidence techniques 
B1, Topic 7, S2 
Overlay_RegionWide 
Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations 
1992.02 
Feb/Jan 
1992 
Characterizing
Spatial Coincidence the Computer’s Way — describes
pointbypoint overlay techniques 
B1, Topic 7, S1 
Overlay_CellbyCellCoincidence 
Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations 
1991.12 
December 
1991 
Analyzing
the NonAnalytical — describes
how “joint probability of coincidence” and “minimum mapping resolution” can be
used to assess results of overlaying maps 
B1, Topic 6, S2 
Overlay_CellbyCellCoincidence 
Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations 
1991.11 
November 
1991 
GIS
Facilitates Error Assessment — discusses
potential sources of error when overlaying maps and how “shadow maps” of
error and “fuzzy theory” can shed light on the problem 
B1, Topic 6, S1 
Overlay_CellbyCellCoincidence 
Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations 
1991.10 
October 
1991 
Discovering
Feature Patterns — describes procedures for assessing landscape pattern (Spacing and
Contiguity) 
B1, Topic 5, S3 
Reclassify_Contiguity 
Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations 
1991.09 
September 
1991 
You
Can’t See the Forest for the Trees —
discusses indices of feature shape (Boundary Configuration and Spatial
Integrity) 
B1, Topic 5, S2 
Reclassify_Shape 
Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations 
1991.08 
August 
1991 
Need
to Ask the Right Questions Takes You Beyond Mapping — describes indices of map variability (Neighborhood Complexity and
Comparison) 
B1, Topic 5, S1 
Neighborhood_Summary 
Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations 
1991.07 
July 
1991 
Special URISA
Issue — no BM column; special supplement made available, A
Mathematical Structure for Analyzing Maps— a 1986 journal article
establishing a framework for map analysis/modeling 
B1, Epilog, S3 
ConceptualFramework_Operations 
Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations 
1990.12 
December 
1990 
I
Don’t Do Windows — describes procedures
for summarizing weighted roving windows 
B1, Topic 3, S4 
Neighborhood_Summary 
Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations 
1990.10 
Oct/Nov 
1990 
Torture
Numbers, They’ll Tell you Anything — discusses
the underlying theory and basic considerations of spatial interpolation 
B1, Topic 3, S3 
SurfaceModeling_Interpolation 
Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations 
1990.08 
Aug/Sep 
1990 
It’s
Like the New Math, I am Just Too Old — discusses
the concept of calculating a “map derivative” and its use 
B1, Topic 3, S2 
Neighborhood_Configuration 
Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations 
1990.06 
Jun/July 
1990 
Imagination
is More Important than Information — describes
procedures for characterizing surface configuration (slope, aspect and
profile) 
B1, Topic 3, S1 
Neighborhood_Configuration 
Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations 
1990.04 
Apr/May 
1990 
There’s
Only One Problem Having All this Sophisticated Equipment — discusses the basic approaches used for calculating narrowness
and visual connectivity 
B1, Topic 2, S4 
Distance_Narrowness 
Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations 
1990.02 
Feb/Mar 
1990 
Keep
It Simple Stupid (KISS) — describes the use of “accumulation
surfaces” for deriving optimal path density and N^{th} best paths 
B1, Topic 2, S3 
Distance_AccumulationSurface 
Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations 
1989.11 
Nov/Dec 
1989 
As
the Crow Walks — describes the use of
“propagating waves” for calculating effective distance and optimal paths 
B1, Topic 2, S2 
Distance_EffectiveProximity 
Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations 
1989.09 
Sep/Oct 
1989 
You
Can’t Get There from Here — introduces
the similarities and differences between “simple” and “effective” distance
measurement 
B1, Topic 2, S1 
Distance_EffectiveProximity 
Basic_ConceptsAnalyticOperations 
2013.05 
May 
2013 
Mixing
It up in GIS Modeling’s Kitchen — an overview of map analysis
and GIS modeling considerations 
B4, Topic 5, S1 
Overview 
Basic_ConceptsApproach 
2013.03 
March 
2013 
Depending
on Where is What — develops an organizational structure for spatial
statistics 
B4, Topic 9, S5 
DataConsiderations_Structure 
Basic_ConceptsApproach 
2011.11 
November 
2011 
Contour
Lines versus Color Gradients for Displaying Spatial Information — discusses
the similarities and differences between discrete contour line and continuous
gradient procedures for visualizing map surfaces 
B4, Topic 1, S4 
Display_2D3D 
Basic_ConceptsApproach 
2010.10 
October 
2010 
Putting
GIS Modeling Concepts in Their Place — develops a typology of GIS modeling types and
characteristics 
B4, Topic 5, S4 
ConceptualFramework_Modeling 
Basic_ConceptsApproach 
2009.04 
April 
2009 
What’s
Missing in Mapping? — discusses the need for identifying
data dispersion as well as average in Thematic Mapping 
B4, Topic 4, S1 
Overlay_RegionWide 
Basic_ConceptsApproach 
2004.12 
December 
2004 
Moving
Mapping to Analysis of Mapped Data — describes Spatial Analysis
and Spatial Statistics as extensions to traditional mapping and statistics 
B3, Topic 2, S1 
General_Overview 
Basic_ConceptsApproach 
2003.06 
June 
2003 
Use
Mapping “Art” to Visualize Values — describes procedures for generating
contour maps 
B3, Topic 1, Further Reading2 
Display_2D3D 
Basic_ConceptsApproach 
2001.09 
September 
2001 
Use
Polar Variograms to Assess Distance and Direction Dependencies — discuses a
procedure to incorporate direction as well as distance for assessing spatial
dependency 
B3, Topic 9, Further Reading10 
SurfaceModeling_Interpolation 
Basic_ConceptsApproach 
1999.01 
January 
1999 
Extending Spatial Dependency to Maps
— describes a technique for generating a map of spatial
autocorrelation 
B3, Topic 9, Further Reading9 
SurfaceModeling_Interpolation 
Basic_ConceptsApproach 
1998.12 
December 
1998 
Measuring Spatial Dependency
— describes the basic measures of autocorrelation 
B3, Topic 9, Further Reading8 
SurfaceModeling_Interpolation 
Basic_ConceptsApproach 
1998.11 
November 
1998 
Unlocking
the Keystone Concept of Spatial
Dependency — discusses spatial dependency
and illustrates the effects of different spatial arrangements of the same set
of data 
B3, Topic
9, Further Reading7 
SurfaceModeling_Interpolation 
Basic_ConceptsApproach 
1998.07 
July 
1998 
Explore Data Space — establishes
the concept of "data space" and how mapped data conforms to this
fundamental view 
B3, Topic 10, Further Reading3 
Processing_Approaches 
Basic_ConceptsApproach 
1998.06 
June 
1998 
Link Data and Geographic Distributions
— describes
the direct link between numeric and geographic distributions 
B3, Topic 10, Further Reading2 
Processing_Approaches 
Basic_ConceptsApproach 
1998.05 
May 
1998 
Beware
the Slippery Surfaces of GIS Modeling — discusses
the relationships among maps, map surfaces and data distributions 
B3, Topic 10, Further Reading1 
Processing_Approaches 
Basic_ConceptsApproach 
1998.01 
January 
1998 
Analyzing
Stepped Accumulation Surfaces
— describes a technique for forcing an optimal path through a
series of points 
B3, Topic 8, Further Reading7 
Distance_AccumulationSurface 
Basic_ConceptsApproach 
1997.12 
December 
1997 
Determining Optimal Path Corridors
— describes a technique for determining the set of n^{th}
best paths between two points 
B3, Topic 8, Further Reading6 
Distance_AccumulationSurface 
Basic_ConceptsApproach 
1997.11 
November 
1997 
Analyzing Accumulation Surfaces
— describes how two surfaces can be analyzed to determine the
relative traveltime advantages 
B3, Topic 8, Further Reading5 
Distance_AccumulationSurface 
Basic_ConceptsApproach 
1997.10 
October 
1997 
Building Accumulation Surfaces
— reviews how proximity analysis and effective distance is used to
construct accumulation surfaces 
B3, Topic 8, Further Reading4 
Distance_AccumulationSurface 
Basic_ConceptsApproach 
1997.07 
July 
1997 
Uncovering the Mysteries of Spatial Autocorrelation
— describes approaches used in assessing spatial autocorrelation 
B3, Topic 9, Further Reading6 
SurfaceModeling_Interpolation 
Basic_ConceptsApproach 
1997.05 
May 
1997 
Depending on the Data — discusses
the fundamental concepts of spatial dependency 
B3, Topic 9, Further Reading5 
SurfaceModeling_Interpolation 
Basic_ConceptsApproach 
1997.04 
April 
1997 
Comparing Map Errors — describes
how normalized maps of error can be used to visualize the differences in
error surfaces 
B3, Topic 9, Further Reading2 
SurfaceModeling_Accuracy 
Basic_ConceptsApproach 
1997.03 
March 
1997 
Move Beyond a Map Full of Errors
— discusses a technique for generating a "shadow map"
of error 
B3, Topic 9, Further Reading1 
SurfaceModeling_Accuracy 
Basic_ConceptsApproach 
1997.02 
February 
1997 
Justifiable Interpolation
— describes the "Residual Analysis" procedure for
assessing interpolation performance 
B3, Topic 9, S4 
SurfaceModeling_Accuracy 
Basic_ConceptsApproach 
1997.01 
January 
1997 
Designer Samples — describes
different sampling patterns and their relative advantages 
B3, Topic 9, Further Reading4 
SurfaceModeling_PointSampling 
Basic_ConceptsApproach 
1996.12 
December 
1996 
What's the Point? — discusses
the general considerations in point sampling design 
B3, Topic 9, Further Reading3 
SurfaceModeling_PointSampling 
Basic_ConceptsApproach 
1996.03 
March 
1996 
Classifying
the Analytical Capabilities of GIS — discusses the differences
and similarities in the Berry and Tomlin map analysis classification schemes 
B2, Topic 7, S2 
ConceptualFramework_Operations 
Basic_ConceptsApproach 
1995.10 
October 
1995 
GIS
and Remote Sensing Share a Lofty Marriage — identifies the
basic concepts, principles and theoretical underpinnings of Remote Sensing
(RS) technology 
B2, Topic
9, S2 
SpatialDataMining_Classification 
Basic_ConceptsApproach 
1994.10 
October 
1994 
Empirical
Verification Assesses Mapping Performance — describes
procedures for assessing mapping performance through Error Matrix (discrete)
and Residual Analysis (continuous) 
B2, Topic 4, S4 
DataConsiderations_Accuracy 
Basic_ConceptsApproach 
1994.02 
February 
1994 
Surf’s
Up
— fitting continuous map surfaces to
geographic data distributions 
B2, Topic 2, S2 
SurfaceModeling_Interpolation 
Basic_ConceptsApproach 
1994.01 
January 
1994 
Averages
Are Mean
— compares nonspatial and spatial
distributions of field data 
B2, Topic 2, S1 
General_Overview 
Basic_ConceptsApproach 
1993.02 
February 
1993 
GIS
Mirrors Perceptions of Decision Criteria — describes
a flowcharting procedure that expresses GIS model logic in a clear and concise
form 
B1, Topic 10, S1 
ConceptualFramework_Modeling 

2013.09 
September 
2013 
The
Spatial Key to Seeing the Big Picture — describes a five step
process for generating grid map layers from spatially tagged data 
B4, Topic 9, Further Reading3 
DataConsiderations_Structure 
Basic_ConceptsData 
2013.06 
June 
2013 
Setting
a Place at the Table for Gridbased Data — describes the differences
between individual file and table storage approaches 
B4, Topic 1, S4 
DataConsiderations_Structure 
Basic_ConceptsData 
2012.10 
October 
2012 
To
Boldly Go Where No Map Has Gone Before — identifies Lat/Lon as a Universal
Spatial Key for joining database tables 
B4, Topic 9, S4 
DataConsiderations_Structure 
Basic_ConceptsData 
2012.09 
September 
2012 
Organizing
Geographic Space for Effective Analysis — an overview of data
organization for gridbased map analysis 
B4, Topic 1, S1 
DataConsiderations_Structure 
Basic_ConceptsData 
2011.12 
December 
2011 
VtoR and Back! — describes various techniques
for converting between vector and raster data types 
B4, Topic 1, S3 
DataConsiderations_Structure 
Basic_ConceptsData 
2011.10 
October 
2011 
The
Universal Key for Unlocking GIS’s Full Potential — outlines a
global referencing system approach compatible with standard DBMS systems 
B4, Topic 7, S6 
DataConsiderations_Structure 
Basic_ConceptsData 
2009.12 
December 
2009 
From
a Map Pancake to a Soufflé — continues the discussion of concepts
and configuration of a 3D GIS 
B4, Topic
10, Further Reading1 
DataConsiderations_Structure 
Basic_ConceptsData 
2009.11 
November 
2009 
Thinking
Outside the Box — discusses concepts and configuration of
3dimensional geography 
B4, Topic
10, S4 
DataConsiderations_Structure 
Basic_ConceptsData 
2009.10 
October 
2009 
Visualizing
a Threedimensional Reality — uses visual connectivity to
introduce and reinforce the paradigm of threedimension geography 
B4, Topic
10, S3 
DataConsiderations_Structure 
Basic_ConceptsData 
2008.02 
February 
2008 
How
to Determine Exactly “Where Is What” — discusses the levels of precision (correct
placement) and accuracy (correct characterization) 
B4, Topic 5, S2 
DataConsiderations_Accuracy 
Basic_ConceptsData 
2007.05 
May 
2007 
Getting
the Numbers Right — describes a classification scheme for map analysis operations based on
how map values are retrieved for processing (Local, Focal, Zonal) 
B4, Topic
5, S3 
DataConsiderations_Structure 
Basic_ConceptsData 
2007.04 
April 
2007 
GeoReferencing
Is the Cornerstone of GIS — describes current and alternative approaches
for referencing geographic and abstract space 
B4, Intro,S3 
DataConsiderations_Structure 
Basic_ConceptsData 
2007.03 
March 
2007 
Understand
Resolution to “Think with Maps” — discusses the factors that determine
the “informational scale” digital maps 
B4, Intro, S2 
DataConsiderations_Accuracy 
Basic_ConceptsData 
2007.02 
February 
2007 
Finding
Common Ground in Paper and Digital Worlds — describes
the similarities and differences in information and organization between
traditional paper and digital maps 
B4, Intro, S1 
DataConsiderations_Structure 
Basic_ConceptsData 
2002.07 
July 
2002 
Grids
and Lattices Build Visualizations — describes Lattice and Grid forms of
map surface display 
B3, Topic 1, S1 
Display_2D3D 
Basic_ConceptsData 
1995.11 
November 
1995 
HeadsUp
and FeetDown Digitizing — discusses the design components
of a GIS/GPS/RS field unit 
B2, Topic
9, S3 
DataConsiderations_Input 
Basic_ConceptsData 
1995.09 
September 
1995 
Put
Things in Their Proper Places with GPS — identifies the basic concepts, principles and theoretical
underpinnings of the Global Positioning System (GPS) 
B2, Topic 9, S1 
DataConsiderations_Input 
Basic_ConceptsData 
1995.08 
August 
1995 
Rasterized
Lines and Vectorized Cells —
describes specialized offshoots of
traditional raster and vector data formats 
B2, Topic
6, S4 
DataConsiderations_Structure 
Basic_ConceptsData 
1995.07 
July 
1995 
How
are your QUADS and TINS? — describes alternative Quadtree
and Triangular Irregular Network data formats 
B2, Topic
6, S3 
DataConsiderations_Structure 
Basic_ConceptsData 
1995.06 
June 
1995 
Raster
is Faster, but Vector is Correcter — describes the structuring of
traditional Vector data using explicit topology linking spatial and attribute
tables 
B2, Topic
6, S2 
DataConsiderations_Structure 
Basic_ConceptsData 
1995.05 
May 
1995 
Are
You a GIS Dead Head? — describes the structuring of traditional
Raster data using implicit topology based on the row/column positioning in a
matrix 
B2, Topic
6, S1 
DataConsiderations_Structure 
Basic_ConceptsData 
1994.12 
December 
1994 
Resolving
Map Detail
— discusses the four basic types Map Resolution
(Spatial, Minimum Mapping, Thematic, Temporal) that define the level of
detail in a digital map as dramatically different from the traditional
concept of Map Scale 
B2, Topic 7, S3 
DataConsiderations_Accuracy 
Basic_ConceptsData 
1994.11 
November 
1994 
What
Does Your Computer Really Think of Your Map? — discusses Spatial Topology through the differences among
Graphics Packages, Mapping Software, Spatial Database Management Systems, and
GIS Analysis/Modeling Systems 
B2, Topic 7, S1 
DataConsiderations_Structure 
Basic_ConceptsData 
1993.09 
September 
1993 
Terminology
Accelerates Your Intellectual Depletion Allowance — introduces the concepts and organization used in GIS databases comprised
of multiple map layers 
B1, Intro, S3 
DataConsiderations_Structure 
Basic_ConceptsData 
1993.08 
August 
1993 
GIS
Maps Are Dumb — compares the basic
Vector and Raster data structure approaches for storing individual map layers 
B1, Intro, S2 
DataConsiderations_Structure 
Basic_ConceptsData 
1993.07 
July 
1993 
Coming
to Terms with Terminology — describes the underlying theory of how point, line and areal
features are stored in Vector and Raster GISs 
B1, Intro, S1 
DataConsiderations_Structure 
Basic_ConceptsData 
1993.03 
March 
1993 
Effective
Standards Required to Go Beyond Mapping — identifies and describes four levels of GIS standards (data
Exchange, Geographic, Algorithmic and Interpretational) 
B1, Topic 10, S2 
DataConsiderations_Accuracy 

1989.07 
Jul/Aug 
1989 
GIS
Technology Is Technical Oz — discusses
and compares the relative advantages/disadvantages between Vector and Raster
processing 
B1, Topic 1, S3 
DataConsiderations_Structure 
Basic_ConceptsData 
1989.05 
May V23 
1989 
It
Depends: Implications of data structure — discusses and compares the similarities and differences between
Vector and Raster data structure applications 
B1, Topic 1, S2 
DataConsiderations_Structure 
Basic_ConceptsData 
1989.03 
March V22 
1989 
Maps
as Data: a 'Mapematics' is Emerging — describes the
differences between Discrete and Continuous mapped data 
B1, Topic 1, S1 
DataConsiderations_Structure 
Basic_ConceptsData 
2013.12 
December 
2013 
Where
Do We Go from Here? — Swan Song after 25 years of
Beyond Mapping columns 
Epilog, S2 
Overview 
Basic_Discussion 
2013.11 
November 
2013 
The
Good, the Bad and the Ugly Sides of GIS — discusses
the potential of geotechnology to hinder (or even thwart) societal progress 
Epilog, S1 
Overview 

2011.01 
January 
2011 
Which
Direction Are You Headed? — describes
four perspectives on the trailing “S” in the GIS acronym from a GIS’ers
Perspective 
B4, Topic 6, S1 
Education_Approaches 
Basic_Discussion 
2009.09 
September 
2009 
GIS
and the Cloud Computing Conundrum
— describes cloud computing with particular attention to its
geotechnology expression 
B4, Topic
10, S2 
Processing_Approaches 
Basic_Discussion 
2009.03 
March 
2009 
What’s
in a Name — suggests and defines the new more comprehensive
term “Geotechnology” 
B4, Intro, Further Reading2 
General_Overview 
Basic_Discussion 
2009.02 
February 
2009 
Is
it Soup Yet? — describes the evolution in GIS
definitions and terminology 
B4, Intro, Further Reading1 
General_Overview 
Basic_Discussion 
2008.01 
January 
2008 
Explore
the Softer Side of GIS — describes a Manual GIS (circa
1950) and the relationship between social science conceptual frameworks for
understanding/judgment in GIS modeling

B4, Topic 5, Further Reading1 
General_Historical 
Basic_Discussion 
2007.12 
December 
2007 
Lumpers
and Splitters Propel GIS — describes the two camps
of GIS (GeoExploration and GeoScience)

B4, Topic 6, Further Reading1 
General_Overview 
Basic_Discussion 
2007.11 
November 
2007 
Throwing
the Baby Out with the Bath Water — discusses the information lost in aggregating
field data and assigning typical values to polygons (desktop mapping) 
B4, Topic
4, S2 
SurfaceModeling_Interpolation 
Basic_Discussion 
2007.10 
October 
2007 
Get
a Consistent Statistical Picture — describes
creation of a Standardized Map Variable surface using Median and Quartile Range 
B4, Topic
4, Further Reading1 
Map_Normalization 
Basic_Discussion 
2007.09 
September 
2007 
Normally
Things Aren’t Normal — discusses the appropriateness of
using traditional “normal” and percentile statistics 
B4, Topic
4, S3 
Map_Normalization 
Basic_Discussion 
2007.08 
August 
2007 
GIS
Innovation Drives Its Evolution — discusses the cyclic nature of
GIS innovation (Mapping, Structure and Analysis) 
B4, Topic 10, S1 
General_Historical 
Basic_Discussion 
2007.01 
January 
2007 
A
Multifaceted GIS Community — investigates the technical shifts
and cultural impacts of the rapidly expanding GIS tent of users, application
developers and tool programmers 
B3, Epilog, S2 
General_Historical 
Basic_Discussion 
2006.12 
December 
2006 
Pathways
to GIS — explores different paths of GIS adoption for five
disciplines (Natural Resources, Facilities Management, Public Health,
Business and Precision Agriculture) 
B3, Epilog, S1 
General_Historical 
Basic_Discussion 
2006.11 
November 
2006 
Contemporary
GIS and Future Directions — discusses contemporary GIS and
probable future directions (Multimedia Mapping and Spatial Reasoning/Dialog) 
B3, Intro, S2 
General_Historical 
Basic_Discussion 
2006.10 
October 
2006 
Early
GIS Technology and Its Expression — traces the early phases of GIS
technology (Computer Mapping, Spatial Database Management and Map
Analysis/Modeling) 
B3, Intro, S1 
General_Historical 
Basic_Discussion 
2005.08 
August 
2005 
Taking
Distance to the Edge — discusses advance distance operations 
B3, Topic 4, Further Reading3 
Distance_EffectiveProximity 
Basic_Discussion 
2004.03 
March 
2004 
Use
a Mapematical Framework for GIS Modeling — describes
a conceptual structure for map analysis operations and GIS modeling 
B3, Topic
3, S1 
ConceptualFramework_Operations 
Basic_Discussion 
2002.08 
August 
2002 
Maps
Are Numbers First, Pictures Later — discusses the numeric and geographic
characteristics of map values 
B3, Topic
1, S2 
DataConsiderations_Accuracy 
Basic_Discussion 
1999.12 
December 
1999 
Can
Predictable Maps Work for You? — describes a procedure for deriving a
spatial prediction model 
B3, Topic 10, Further Reading8 
SpatialDataMining_Regression 
Basic_Discussion 
1999.11 
November 
1999 
Use
Scatterplots to Understand Map Correlation — discusses
the underlying concepts in assessing correlation among maps 
B3, Topic 10, Further Reading7 
SpatialDataMining_Regression 
Basic_Discussion 
1999.04 
April 
1999 
GIS Represents Spatial Patterns and
Relationships — discusses the important differences
among discrete mapping , continuous map surfaces and map analysis 
B3, Topic 2, Further Reading1 
Processing_Approaches 
Basic_Discussion 
1999.03 
March 
1999 
Observe
the Evolving GIS Mindset — illustrates the "mapematical" approach to analyzing mapped data 
B3, Epilog, Further Reading2 
Processing_Approaches 
Basic_Discussion 
1999.02 
February 
1999 
Is
GIS Technology Ahead of Science? — discusses
several issues surrounding the differences in the treatment of nonspatial
and spatial data 
B3, Epilog, Further Reading1 
Processing_Approaches 
Basic_Discussion 
1998.10 
October 
1998 
GIS Data Are Rarely Normal
— describes the basic nonspatial descriptive statistics 
B3, Topic 9, S1 
General_Overview 
Basic_Discussion 
1998.09 
September 
1998 
GIS Software's Changing Roles
— discusses the evolution of GIS software and identifies
important trends 
B3, Intro, Further Reading1 
General_Historical 
Basic_Discussion 
1997.08 
August 
1997 
Varied
Applications Drive GIS Perspectives — discusses
how map analysis is enlarging the traditional view of mapping 
B3, Epilog, Further Reading4 
ConceptualFramework_Modeling 
Basic_Discussion 
1996.11 
November 
1996 
Does Anyone Object? — discusses
some concerns of objectoriented GIS 
B3, Intro, Further Reading4 
General_Historical 
Basic_Discussion 
1996.10 
October 
1996 
Spatial
Objects—the Parse and Parcel of GIS? — discusses database objects and their
map expressions 
B3, Intro, Further Reading3 
General_Historical 
Basic_Discussion 
1996.09 
September 
1996 
What
Is ObjectOriented Technology Anyway? — establishes
the basic concepts in objectoriented technology 
B3, Intro,
Further Reading2 
General_Historical 
Basic_Discussion 
1996.08 
August 
1996 
Developing
an Understanding GIS — describes the translation of mapped
data to spatial information for decisionmaking 
B2, Epilog,
S2 
General_Overview 
Basic_Discussion 
1996.07 
July 
1996 
Don’t
Forget the Human Factor: an Experiential GIS — describes an early
experience (1980) in the application of 
B2, Epilog,
S1 
General_Historical 
Basic_Discussion 
1996.06 
June 
1996 
Analyzing
Spatial Dependency between Maps — investigates
multivariate analysis involving the coincidence of two or more map layers 
B2, Topic 10, S3 
General_Overview 
Basic_Discussion 
1996.05 
May 
1996 
Analyzing
Spatial Dependency within a Map — investigates
univariate analysis involving spatial relationships within a single map layer 
B2, Topic 10, S2 
General_Overview 
Basic_Discussion 
1996.04 
April 
1996 
The
Unique Character of Spatial Analysis — discusses spatial
analysis as deriving new spatial information based on geographic dependence
within and among map variables 
B2, Topic 10, S1 
General_Overview 
Basic_Discussion 
1995.04 
April 
1995 
Explore
a New Spatial Paradigm — discusses the movement from mapping
and spatial inventories by technologists to spatial reasoning and dialog
involving enlightened users in development of solutions to complex spatial
problems 
B2, Intro,
S2 
General_Overview 
Basic_Discussion 
1995.03 
March 
1995 
Is
the GIS Cart in Front of the Horse? — discusses driving
forces, trends and forecasts in contemporary GIS from the perspective of
modeling interrelationships among mapped variables 
B2, Intro,
S1 
General_Overview 
Basic_Discussion 
1995.022 
February 
1995 
Layers
to Tapestry (supplement) — describes an interactive environment
for diagramming GIS Logic and processing flows 
B2, Topic 5, S3 
ConceptualFramework_Modeling 
Basic_Discussion 
1995.01 
January 
1995 
What’s
in a Model? — discusses a conceptual framework for
GIS model types and characteristics 
B2, Topic 5, S1 
ConceptualFramework_Operations 
Basic_Discussion 
1994.06 
June 
1994 
Build
It and They Will Come — describes the tactical and
conceptual considerations in GIS implementation 
B2, Topic 3, S3 
General_Overview 
Basic_Discussion 
1994.05 
May 
1994 
What
Can GIS Do for You? — identifies and discusses the seven
basic types of questions addressed by GIS technology 
B2, Topic 3, S2 
General_Overview 
Basic_Discussion 
1994.04 
April 
1994 
Question
GIS before You Start — discusses
the importance of an Information Needs Assessment (INA) and a GIS Reality
Assessment (GRA) 
B2, Topic 3, S1 
General_Overview 
Basic_Discussion 
1993.12 
December 
1993 
Consider
a GIS Modeler’s Toolkit — discusses an
ObjectOriented Programming System approach to GIS model development 
B2, Topic 1, S3 
General_Historical 
Basic_Discussion 
1993.11 
November 
1993 
Moving
Toward a Humane GIS — describes an
interactive link between GIS model logic and code 
B2, Topic 1, S2 
General_Overview 
Basic_Discussion 
1993.10 
October 
1993 
Distinguishing
Data from Information and Understanding — considers the
fundamental concepts behind moving mapped data to information and ultimately
to understanding 
B2, Topic 1, S1 
General_Overview 
Basic_Discussion 
1992.07 
July 
1992 
Bringing
the GIS Paradigm to Closure — discusses the evolution and
probable future of GIS technology 
B1, Epilog, S1 
Future_Directions 
Basic_Discussion 
1992.06 
June 
1992 
GIS
Is Never Having to Say You’re Sorry — discusses
the human and organizational considerations in adopting GIS technology 
B1, Topic 8, S2 
General_Overview 
Basic_Discussion 
1992.05 
May 
1992 
Both
Dreams and Nightmares Are Born of Frustration — discusses the limitations of traditional cost/benefit analysis in
evaluating the adoption of a radically new technology like GIS 
B1, Topic 8, S1 
General_Overview 
Basic_Discussion 
1991.06 
June 
1991 
Frankly
My Dear, I Don’t Give a Damn — discusses
how GIS modeling and spatial reasoning are changing policy formation and
decisionmaking 
B1, Topic 4, S4 
General_Overview 
Basic_Discussion 
1991.05 
May 
1991 
Who
Says You Can’t Teach an Old Dog New Tricks? — describes the basic concepts and approaches used in GIS
modeling 
B1, Topic 4, S3 
General_Overview 
Basic_Discussion 
1991.04 
Apr/Mar 
1991 
What’s
Needed to Go Beyond Mapping — lists and describes the analytical
tools needed to go beyond mapping 
B1, Topic 4, S2 
ConceptualFramework_Operations 
Basic_Discussion 
1991.02 
Feb/Jan 
1991 
Technobabble — discusses
the radical changes GIS technology and the digital map are bringing to
traditional mapping 
B1, Topic 4, S1 
General_Overview 
Basic_Discussion 
2008.11 
November 
2008 
Discover
the “Miracles” in Mapping Data Clusters — describes
the use of “clustering” to identify inherent groupings of similar data patterns 
B4, Topic 7, S5 
SpatialDataMining_Clustering 
GeoBusiness_DataGrouping 
2008.10 
October 
2008 
Get
“Mapematical” to Identify Data Zones
— describes the use of “levelslicing” for classifying locations with a
specified data pattern 
B4, Topic 7, Further Reading2 
SpatialDataMining_Classification 

2008.09 
September 
2008 
Use
Map Analysis to Characterize Data Groups — describes the use of
“data distance” to derive similarity among the data patterns in a set of map
layers 
B4, Topic 7, S4 
SpatialDataMining_Similarity 
GeoBusiness_DataGrouping 
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