Further Reading and Materials in Support of SpatialSTEM
…map analysis and modeling
fundamentals within a mathematical context that
resonates with science, technology,
engineering and math/stat communities
ThreePart Series for the Beyond Mapping column in GeoWorld, JanuaryMarch, 2012
by Joseph
K. Berry
January 
2012 
SpatialSTEM
Has Deep Mathematical Roots (Part 1) —
provides a conceptual framework for a mapematical
treatment of mapped data
http://www.innovativegis.com/basis/MapAnalysis/MA_Intro/MA_Intro.htm#sSTEM1 
February 
2012 
Mapematically Messing with Mapped Data (Part
2) — discusses the nature of gridbased mapped data and Spatial Analysis
operations
http://www.innovativegis.com/basis/MapAnalysis/MA_Intro/MA_Intro.htm#sSTEM2 
March 
2012 
Paint
by Numbers Outside the Traditional Statistics Box (Part
3) — discusses the nature of Spatial Statistics operations http://www.innovativegis.com/basis/MapAnalysis/MA_Intro/MA_Intro.htm#sSTEM3 
An extended treatise is available in the online book Map Analysis III, Topic
30, “A Math/Stat Framework for
Gridbased Map Analysis and Modeling”
Notes:
When viewing this listing in HTML and .pdf formats,
each reference contains an embedded URL as blue underlined text. When viewing as hardcopy, the following direct
links to the general online document containing the references are— 
Online book Beyond Mapping III is posted at http://www.innovativegis.com/basis/MapAnalysis/Default.htm

White papers
are posted at http://www.innovativegis.com/basis/Papers/Online_Papers.htm

General BASIS website containing books,
additional papers, presentation decks and teaching materials is posted at http://www.innovativegis.com/basis/ Links to Royaltyfree Workshop and Course Materials
are posted at the end of this listing 
General Overview 

A
Brief History and Probable Future of Geotechnology — white paper
overview on the evolution and future
directions of GIS technology 

An
Analytical Framework for GIS Modeling — white
paper detailing a conceptual framework for map analysis and GIS Modeling 
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 
Part 1 – SpatialSTEM Has Deep Mathematical
Roots 

sSTEM Topic 
Link and Description 
Defining Geotechnology 
·
Beyond Mapping III, Introduction,
Is it Soup Yet?
— describes the
evolution in definitions and terminology; What’s
in a Name — suggests and defines
the new term Geotechnology ·
Beyond Mapping III, Epilog,
Lumpers
and Splitters Propel GIS — describes the two camps
of GIS (GeoExploration and GeoScience);
The
Softer Side of GIS — describes a Manual GIS (circa
1950) and the relationship between social science conceptual frameworks for
understanding/judgment in GIS modeling; Melding
the Minds of the “ists” and “ologists” — elaborates
on the two basic mindsets driving the geotechnology community; Is
GIS Technology Ahead of Science? — discusses
several issues surrounding the differences in the treatment of nonspatial
and spatial data 
Beyond Traditional GIS Education 
·
Beyond Mapping III, Topic
4, Where Is GIS Education, Where
Is GIS Education — describes the broadening appeal of · Infusing
GridBased Map Analysis into Introductory Courses, conference paper on teaching map analysis and modeling · Education,
Vocation and GIS Enlightenment, plenary presentation on GIS education 
A Mathematical Structure for Map Analysis/Modeling 
· Mapematical
Models: Doing the Math, short paper
with links on mathematical modeling with · A
Mathematical Structure for Analyzing Maps— a 1986 Journal of Environmental Management article establishing a
framework for map analysis/modeling ·
Beyond Mapping III, Topic 22 – Reclassifying and Overlaying Maps, Use
a Mapematical Framework for GIS Modeling — describes
a conceptual structure for map analysis operations and GIS modeling ·
Beyond Mapping III, Topic 24 – Overview of Spatial Analysis and
Statistics, Moving
Mapping to Analysis of Mapped Data — describes Spatial
Analysis and Spatial Statistics as extensions to traditional mapping and
statistics; Bending
Our Understanding of Distance — uses effective distance in
establishing erosion setback to demonstrate spatial analysis ·
Beyond Mapping III, Topic 29 – Spatial Modeling in Natural Resources, Putting
GIS Modeling Concepts in Their Place — develops a typology of GIS modeling types and
characteristics; A
Suitable Framework for GIS Modeling — describes a framework for suitability
modeling based on a flowchart of model logic; GIS’s
Supporting Role in the Future of Natural Resources — discusses the
influence of human dimensions in natural resources and GIS technology’s role 
Types of Digital Maps 
·
Beyond Mapping III, Topic 18 – Understanding Gridbased Data, Multiple
Methods Help Organize Raster Data — discusses
different approaches to storing raster data; Grids
and Lattices Build Visualizations — describes
Lattice and Grid forms of map surface display; Contour
Lines versus Color Gradients for Displaying Spatial Information
— discusses the similarities and differences between discrete contour
line and continuous gradient procedures for visualizing map surfaces 
Grid Data Structure 
·
Beyond Mapping III, Topic 18 – Understanding Gridbased Data, VtoR and Back! — describes various techniques
for converting between vector and raster data types; Multiple
Methods Help Organize Raster Data — discusses different approaches
to storing raster data; Use
Mapping “Art” to Visualize Values — describes procedures for
generating contour maps; What’s
Missing in Mapping? — discusses the need for identifying data
dispersion as well as average in Thematic Mapping 
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 
Part 2 – Mapematically Messing with Mapped Data 

sSTEM Topic 
Link and Description 
Spatial
Data Perspectives—Where is What 
·
Beyond Mapping III, Introduction,
Finding
Common Ground in Paper and Digital Worlds — describes the similarities and differences in
information and organization between traditional paper and digital maps ·
Beyond Mapping III, Topic
18, Understanding Gridbased Data, Maps
Are Numbers First, Pictures Later — discusses
the numeric and geographic characteristics of map values 
Basic
Grid Math and Algebra (Precision Farming Example) 
·
Beyond Mapping III, Topic
16, Characterizing Patterns and Relationships, Spatial
Data Mining “Down on the Farm” — discusses process
for moving from WholeField to
SiteSpecific management · Who’s
Minding the Farm — feature article
in GeoWorld on applying map analysis in precision agriculture 
Advanced
Grid Math— Trig (Cosine) 
· Beyond
Mapping III, Topic 11 – Characterizing MicroTerrain Features, Use
Surface Area for Realistic Calculations — describes a technique for adjusting planimetric area
to surface area considering terrain slope; Ironing
Out Colorado— extended
discussion comparing planimetric and surface area results for Colorado 
Map
Calculus— Derivative (Slope) and Integral (Zonal) 
Derivative
(Slope): ·
Beyond Mapping III, Topic 11 – Characterizing MicroTerrain Features, Characterizing Terrain Slope and Roughness
— discusses techniques for determining terrain inclination
and coarseness; Beware
of Slope’s Slippery Slope — describes various slope
calculations and compares results ·
Beyond Mapping III, Topic 26 – Assessing SpatiallyDefined
Neighborhoods, Computer
Processing Aids Spatial Neighborhood Analysis — discusses approaches
for calculating slope and profile Integral
(Zonal): ·
Beyond Mapping III, Topic 22 – Reclassifying and Overlaying Maps, Overlay
Operations Feature a Variety of Options — discusses the basic overlaying map operations 
Map Geometry— Distance, Simple and Effective Proximity 
·
Beyond Mapping III, Topic 25 – Effective Distance and Connectivity, Measuring
Distance Is Neither Here nor There — discusses
the basic concepts of distance and proximity; Use
Cells and Rings to Calculate Simple Proximity — describes
how simple proximity is calculated; Extend
Simple Proximity to Effective Movement — discusses
the concept of effective distance responding to relative and absolute
barriers · Beyond Mapping
III, Topic 13 – Creating VariableWidth Buffers, Extending
GIS Procedures with VariableWidth Buffers — discusses the basic considerations in
establishing variablewidth buffers that respond to both intervening
conditions and the type of connectivity; Create
Effective Distance Buffers to Improve Map Accuracy
— develops procedures for creating buffers that
respond to the relative ease of movement ·
Beyond Mapping III, Topic 29 – Spatial Modeling in Natural Resources, Harvesting
an Understanding of GIS Modeling — describes a prototype model
for assessing offroad access to forest areas; Extending
Forest Harvesting’s Reach — discusses a multiplicative
weighting method for model extension; A
Twelvestep Program for Recovery
from Flaky Forest Formulations — describes a spatial model for identifying
Landings and Timbersheds; E911
for the Backcountry — describes development of an on and offroad traveltime surface
for emergency response; Extending
Emergency Response Beyond the Lines — discusses basic model processing and
modifications for additional considerations; Comparing
Emergency Response Alternatives — describes comparison procedures and route
evaluation techniques; Assessing
Wildfire Response (Part 1): Oneth by Land, Twoeth by
Air — discusses a spatial model for determining
effective helicopter landing zones; Assessing
Wildfire Response (Part 2): Jumping
Right into It — describes map analysis
procedures for determining initial response time for alternative attack modes 
Plane Geometry Connectivity— Optimal Path 
·
Beyond Mapping III, Topic 19 – Routing and Optimal Paths, A
ThreeStep Process Identifies Preferred Routes — describes the basic steps in Least Cost Path analysis;
Consider
MultiCriteria When Routing — discusses the
construction of a discrete “cost/avoidance” map and optimal path corridors; A
Recipe for Calibrating and Weighting GIS Model Criteria — identifies
procedures for calibrating and weighting map layers in GIS models; Think
with Maps to Evaluate Alternative Routes — describes
procedures for comparing routes 
Solid Geometry Connectivity— Visual Exposure 
·
Beyond Mapping III, Topic 13 – Creating VariableWidth Buffers, LineofSight
Buffers Add Intelligent to Maps — describes procedures for creating buffers that track
relative visual exposure and noise levels; ·
Beyond Mapping III, Topic 15 – Deriving and Using Visual Exposure Maps,
Identify
and Use Visual Exposure to Create Viewshed Maps — discusses basic considerations and procedures for
establishing visual connectivity; Visual
Exposure is in the Eye of the Beholder — describes
procedures for assessing visual impact and creating simple models; Use
Exposure Maps and Fat Buttons to Assess Visual Impact — investigates
procedures for assessing visual exposure; Use
Maps to Assess Visual Vulnerability — discusses a
procedure for identifying visually vulnerable areas; Try
Vulnerability Maps to Visualize Aesthetics — describes
a procedure for deriving an aesthetics map based on visual exposure to pretty
and ugly places 
Unique Map Analytics 
·
Beyond Mapping III, Topic 22 – Reclassifying and Overlaying Maps, Options
Seem Endless When Reclassifying Maps — discusses the basic reclassifying map operations; Contiguity
Ties Things Together — describes an analytical approach
for determining effective contiguity (clumped features) 
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 
Part 3 – Paint by Numbers
Outside the Traditional Statistics Box 

sSTEM Topic 
Link and Description 
Overview of Spatial Statistics 
·
Beyond Mapping III, Topic 24 – Overview of Spatial Analysis and
Statistics, Use
Spatial Statistics to Map Abnormal Averages — discusses surface modeling to characterize the spatial
distribution inherent in a data set; Making
Space for Mapped Data — investigates the link between geographic space
and data space for mapping data patterns 
Linking data Space and Geographic Space 
·
Beyond Mapping III, Topic 28 – Spatial Data Mining in GeoBusiness, Twisting
the Perspective of Map Surfaces — describes the character of spatial
distributions through the generation of a customer density surface; Linking
Numeric and Geographic Distributions — investigates the link
between numeric and geographic distributions of mapped data ·
Beyond Mapping III, Topic 24 – Overview of Spatial Analysis and
Statistics, Making
Space for Mapped Data — investigates the link
between geographic space and data space for mapping data patterns ·
Beyond Mapping III, Topic 16 – Characterizing Patterns and
Relationships, GIS Represents Spatial Patterns and
Relationships — discusses the important
differences among discrete mapping , continuous map surfaces and map
analysis ·
Beyond Mapping III, Topic 7 – Linking Data Space and Geographic Space,
Beware
the Slippery Surfaces of GIS Modeling — discusses
the relationships among maps, map surfaces and data distributions; Link Data and Geographic Distributions —
describes the direct link between numeric and geographic distributions; Normally
Things Aren’t Normal — discusses the appropriateness of using
traditional “normal” and percentile statistics; Explore
Mapped Data— describes creation of a Standardized Map Variable surface
using Median and Quartile Range; Babies
and Bath Water — discusses the information lost in aggregating
field data and assigning typical values to polygons (desktop mapping); Explore Data Space — establishes
the concept of "data space" and how mapped data conforms to this
fundamental view 
Basic Descriptive Statistics and Classification 
·
Beyond Mapping III, Topic 16 – Characterizing Patterns and
Relationships, Use
Mapping “Art” to Visualize Values — describes procedures for generating
contour maps; What’s
Missing in Mapping? — discusses the need for identifying data dispersion
as well as average in Thematic Mapping · Beyond Mapping III, Topic 18, Understanding Gridbased Data, Maps Are Numbers First, Pictures Later — discusses the numeric and geographic characteristics of map values; Grids and Lattices Build Visualizations — describes Lattice and Grid forms of map surface display; Contour Lines versus Color Gradients for Displaying Spatial Information — discusses the similarities and differences between discrete contour line and continuous gradient procedures for visualizing map surfaces 
Unique Map Descriptive Statistics 
·
Beyond Mapping III, Topic
18, Understanding Gridbased Data, Correlating
Maps and a Numerical Mindset — describes
a Spatially Localized Correlation procedure for mapping the mutual
relationship between two map variables

Map Comparison 
·
Beyond Mapping III, Topic 10 – Analyzing Map Similarity and Zoning, Compare Maps by the Numbers —
describes several techniques for comparing discrete maps; Use
Statistics to Compare Map Surfaces
— describes several techniques for comparing map surfaces ·
Beyond Mapping III, Topic 16 – Characterizing Patterns and
Relationships, Statistically
Compare Discrete Maps — discusses procedures for
comparing discrete maps; Statistically
Compare Continuous Map Surfaces — discusses procedures
for comparing continuous map surfaces ·
Beyond Mapping III, Topic
18, Understanding Gridbased Data, Normalizing
Maps for Data Analysis — describes
map normalization and data exchange with other software packages; Comparing
Apples and Oranges — describes a Standard Normal
Variable (SNV) procedure for normalizing maps 
Spatial Autocorrelation and Surface Modeling 
·
Beyond Mapping III, Topic 2 – Spatial Interpolation Procedures and
Assessment, The
Average Is Hardly Anywhere — discusses the difference
between spatial and nonspatial data distributions; Under
the Hood of Spatial Interpolation — investigates the
basic concepts in IDW and Krig interpolation
procedures; Justifiable Interpolation —
describes the "Residual Analysis" procedure for assessing
interpolation performance; Move Beyond a Map Full of Errors —
discusses a technique for generating a "shadow map" of error; Comparing Map Errors —
describes how normalized maps of error can be used to visualize the
differences in error surfaces ·
Beyond Mapping III, Topic 8 – Investigating Spatial Dependency, Unlocking the Keystone Concept of Spatial Dependency —
discusses spatial dependency and illustrates the effects of different spatial
arrangements of the same set of data; Measuring Spatial Dependency —
describes the basic measures of autocorrelation; Extending Spatial Dependency to Maps —
describes a technique for generating a map of spatial autocorrelation; Use
Polar Variograms to Assess Distance and Direction
Dependencies — discuses a procedure to
incorporate direction as well as distance for assessing spatial dependency ·
Beyond Mapping III, Topic 26 – Assessing SpatiallyDefined
Neighborhoods, Milking
Spatial Context Information — describes
a procedure for deriving a customer density surface ·
Beyond Mapping III, Topic 28 – Spatial Data Mining in GeoBusiness, Myriad
Techniques Help to Interpolate Spatial Distributions — discusses
the basic concepts underlying spatial interpolation; Interpreting
Interpolation Results (and why it is important) — describes the
use of “residual analysis” for evaluating spatial interpolation performance 
Advanced Classification 
·
Beyond Mapping III, Topic 7 – Linking Data Space and Geographic Space,
Identify Data Patterns
— discusses data clustering and its application in identifying
spatial patterns ·
Beyond Mapping III, Topic 16 – Characterizing Patterns and
Relationships, Use
Similarity to Identify Data Zones — describes
levelslicing for classifying areas into zones containing a specified data
pattern; Use
Statistics to Map Data Clusters — discusses clustering
for partitioning an are into separate data groups; Correlating
Maps and a Numerical Mindset — describes a Spatially Localized
Correlation procedure for mapping the mutual relationship between two map
variables ·
Beyond Mapping III, Topic 28 – Spatial Data Mining in GeoBusiness, Use
Map Analysis to Characterize Data Groups — discusses the use of “data distance”
to derive similarity among the data patterns in a set of map layers; Get
“Mapematical” to Identify Data Zones —
describes the use of “levelslicing” for classifying locations with a
specified data pattern (data zones); Discover
the “Miracle” in Mapping Data Clusters — describes the use of
“clustering” to identify inherent groupings of similar data patterns 
Spatial Correlation and Predictive Statistics 
·
Beyond Mapping III, Topic 28 – Spatial Data Mining in GeoBusiness, Can
We Really Map the Future?
— describes the use of “linear regression” to develop
prediction equations relating dependent and independent map variables; Follow
These Steps to Map Potential Sales — describes an extensive geobusiness application that
combines retail competition analysis and product sales prediction ·
Beyond Mapping III, Topic 16 – Characterizing Patterns and
Relationships, Spatial
Data Mining Allows Users to Predict Maps — describes the basic
concepts and procedures for deriving equations that can be used to derive prediction
maps; Stratify
Maps to Make Better Predictions — illustrates a
procedure for subdividing an area into smaller more homogenous groups prior
to generating prediction equations · Beyond Mapping III, Topic 10 – Analyzing Map Similarity and Zoning, Use Scatterplots to Understand Map Correlation — discusses the underlying concepts in assessing correlation among maps; Can Predictable Maps Work for You? — describes a procedure for deriving a spatial prediction model 
Geographic Space as Universal database Key 
·
Beyond Mapping III, Topic 28 – Spatial Data Mining in GeoBusiness, The
Universal Key for Unlocking GIS’s Full Potential — outlines a
global referencing system approach compatible with standard DBMS systems ·
Beyond Mapping III, Topic 16 – Characterizing Patterns and
Relationships, Multiple
Methods Help Organize Raster Data — discusses different
approaches to storing raster data; VtoR and Back! — describes various techniques for
converting between vector and raster data types 
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 
Links to
Royaltyfree Workshop and Course Materials 
needed for an Upper Division/Graduate
college course (2011) __________________________________________________________________
MapCalc
Description & Example Applications describes Map Analysis capabilities using several GIS
modeling examples
MapCalc
Legacy describing the history of
the software __________________________________________________________________ MapCalc is a comprehensive set of gridbased tools for advanced
analysis and display of spatial information (downloads)
