Links to Further
Readings in Support of SpatialSTEM
Joseph
K. Berry
Adjunct Faculty in
Geosciences, University of Denver
Adjunct Faculty in Natural
Resources, Colorado State University
Principal, Berry & Associates // Spatial
Information Systems, Fort Collins, Colorado
Email: jkberry@du.edu — Website: www.innovativegis.com/basis/
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references are— 
Online book Beyond Mapping III is posted at www.innovativegis.com/basis/MapAnalysis/Default.htm

White papers
are posted at www.innovativegis.com/basis/Papers/Online_Papers.htm

General BASIS website containing books,
additional papers, presentation decks and teaching materials is posted at www.innovativegis.com/basis/ 
General Overview 
 A
Brief History and Probable Future of Geotechnology — white paper
overview on the evolution and future
directions of GIS technology 
 An
Analytical Framework for GIS Modeling — white paper detailing a conceptual framework for map analysis and GIS Modeling 
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 
Part 1 – SpatialSTEM Approach and the
Nature of Gridbased Mapped Data 

sSTEM Topic 
Link and Description 
Defining Geotechnology 
· Beyond Mapping
III, Introduction, Is it Soup Yet? — describes the evolution in definitions and
terminology; What’s
in a Name — suggests and defines the new
term Geotechnology · Beyond Mapping
III, Epilog, Lumpers
and Splitters Propel GIS — describes the two
camps of GIS (GeoExploration and GeoScience); The
Softer Side of GIS — describes a Manual GIS
(circa 1950) and the relationship between social science conceptual
frameworks for understanding/judgment in GIS modeling; Melding
the Minds of the “ists” and “ologists” —
elaborates on the two basic mindsets driving the geotechnology community; Is
GIS Technology Ahead of Science? — discusses
several issues surrounding the differences in the treatment of nonspatial
and spatial data 
Beyond Traditional GIS Education 
· Beyond Mapping
III, Topic 4, Where Is GIS
Education, Where
Is GIS Education — describes the broadening appeal of · Infusing
GridBased Map Analysis into Introductory Courses, conference paper on teaching map analysis and modeling · Education,
Vocation and GIS Enlightenment, plenary presentation on GIS education

A Mathematical Structure for Map Analysis/Modeling 
· Mapematical
Models: Doing the Math, short
paper with links on mathematical modeling with · A
Mathematical Structure for Analyzing Maps— a 1986 Journal of Environmental Management article establishing a
framework for map analysis/modeling · Beyond Mapping
III, Topic 22 – Reclassifying and Overlaying Maps, Use
a Mapematical Framework for GIS Modeling
— describes a conceptual structure for map analysis operations and GIS
modeling · Beyond Mapping
III, Topic 24 – Overview of Spatial Analysis and
Statistics, Moving
Mapping to Analysis of Mapped Data — describes Spatial
Analysis and Spatial Statistics as extensions to traditional mapping and
statistics; Bending
Our Understanding of Distance — uses effective distance
in establishing erosion setback to demonstrate spatial analysis · Beyond Mapping
III, Topic 29 – Spatial Modeling in Natural Resources, Putting
GIS Modeling Concepts in Their Place — develops a typology
of GIS modeling types and characteristics; A
Suitable Framework for GIS Modeling — describes a framework for suitability
modeling based on a flowchart of model logic; GIS’s
Supporting Role in the Future of Natural Resources — discusses the
influence of human dimensions in natural resources and GIS technology’s role 
Types of Digital Maps 
· Beyond Mapping
III, Topic 18 – Understanding Gridbased Data, Multiple
Methods Help Organize Raster Data — discusses
different approaches to storing raster data; Grids
and Lattices Build Visualizations — describes
Lattice and Grid forms of map surface display; Contour
Lines versus Color Gradients for Displaying Spatial Information —
discusses the similarities and differences between discrete contour line and
continuous gradient procedures for visualizing map surfaces 
Grid Data Structure 
· Beyond Mapping
III, Topic 18 – Understanding Gridbased Data, VtoR
and Back! — describes various techniques for converting between
vector and raster data types; Multiple
Methods Help Organize Raster Data — discusses different approaches
to storing raster data; Use
Mapping “Art” to Visualize Values — describes procedures for
generating contour maps; What’s
Missing in Mapping? — discusses the need for identifying data
dispersion as well as average in Thematic Mapping 
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 
Part 2 – Spatial Analysis 

sSTEM Topic 
Link and Description 
Spatial
Data Perspectives—Where is What 
· Beyond Mapping
III, Introduction, Finding
Common Ground in Paper and Digital Worlds — describes the similarities and differences in information
and organization between traditional paper and digital maps · Beyond Mapping
III, Topic 18,
Understanding Gridbased Data, Maps
Are Numbers First, Pictures Later —
discusses the numeric and geographic characteristics of map values · Beyond Mapping
III, Topic 24, Overview of
Spatial Analysis and Statistics, Simultaneously
Trivializing and Complicating GIS — describes a mathematical structure for
spatial analysis operations 
Basic
Grid Math and Algebra (Precision Farming Example) 
· Beyond Mapping
III, Topic 16,
Characterizing Patterns and Relationships, Spatial
Data Mining “Down on the Farm” —
discusses process for moving from WholeField
to SiteSpecific management · Who’s
Minding the Farm — feature
article in GeoWorld on applying map analysis in precision agriculture 
Advanced
Grid Math— Trig (Cosine) 
· Beyond Mapping III,
Topic 11 – Characterizing MicroTerrain Features, Use
Surface Area for Realistic Calculations — describes a technique for adjusting planimetric area to
surface area considering terrain slope; Ironing
Out Colorado— extended
discussion comparing planimetric and surface area results for Colorado 
Map Calculus—
Derivative (Slope) and Integral (Zonal) 
Derivative
(Slope): · Beyond Mapping
III, Topic 11 – Characterizing MicroTerrain Features, Characterizing Terrain Slope and Roughness —
discusses techniques for determining terrain inclination and coarseness; Beware
of Slope’s Slippery Slope — describes various
slope calculations and compares results · Beyond Mapping
III, Topic 26 – Assessing SpatiallyDefined
Neighborhoods, Computer
Processing Aids Spatial Neighborhood Analysis — discusses
approaches for calculating slope and profile Integral
(Zonal): · Beyond Mapping
III, Topic 22 – Reclassifying and Overlaying Maps, Overlay
Operations Feature a Variety of Options — discusses the basic overlaying map operations 
Map Geometry— Distance, Simple and Effective Proximity 
· Beyond Mapping
III, Topic 25 – Effective Distance and Connectivity, Measuring
Distance Is Neither Here nor There —
discusses the basic concepts of distance and proximity; Use
Cells and Rings to Calculate Simple Proximity —
describes how simple proximity is calculated; Extend
Simple Proximity to Effective Movement — discusses the
concept of effective distance responding to relative and absolute barriers · Beyond
Mapping III, Topic 13 – Creating VariableWidth Buffers, Extending
GIS Procedures with VariableWidth Buffers — discusses the basic considerations in
establishing variablewidth buffers that respond to both intervening
conditions and the type of connectivity; Create
Effective Distance Buffers to Improve Map Accuracy —
develops procedures for creating buffers that respond to the relative ease of
movement · Beyond Mapping
III, Topic 29 – Spatial Modeling in Natural Resources, Harvesting
an Understanding of GIS Modeling — describes a prototype
model for assessing offroad access to forest areas; Extending
Forest Harvesting’s Reach — discusses a multiplicative
weighting method for model extension; A
Twelvestep Program for
Recovery from Flaky Forest Formulations — describes a spatial
model for identifying Landings and Timbersheds; E911
for the Backcountry — describes development of an on and offroad
traveltime surface for emergency response; Extending
Emergency Response Beyond the Lines — discusses basic model processing and
modifications for additional considerations; Comparing
Emergency Response Alternatives — describes comparison procedures and
route evaluation techniques; Assessing
Wildfire Response (Part 1): Oneth by Land, Twoeth by Air — discusses a spatial
model for determining effective helicopter landing zones; Assessing
Wildfire Response (Part 2): Jumping Right into It —
describes map analysis procedures for determining initial response time for
alternative attack modes 
Plane Geometry Connectivity— Optimal Path 
· Beyond Mapping
III, Topic 19 – Routing and Optimal Paths, A
ThreeStep Process Identifies Preferred Routes — describes the basic steps in Least Cost Path analysis; Consider
MultiCriteria When Routing — discusses the construction
of a discrete “cost/avoidance” map and optimal path corridors; A
Recipe for Calibrating and Weighting GIS Model Criteria —
identifies procedures for calibrating and weighting map layers in GIS models;
Think
with Maps to Evaluate Alternative Routes — describes
procedures for comparing routes 
Solid Geometry Connectivity— Visual Exposure 
· Beyond Mapping
III, Topic 13 – Creating VariableWidth Buffers, LineofSight
Buffers Add Intelligent to Maps — describes procedures for creating buffers that track
relative visual exposure and noise levels; · Beyond Mapping
III, Topic 15 – Deriving and Using Visual Exposure Maps,
Identify
and Use Visual Exposure to Create Viewshed Maps — discusses basic considerations and procedures for
establishing visual connectivity; Visual
Exposure is in the Eye of the Beholder — describes
procedures for assessing visual impact and creating simple models; Use
Exposure Maps and Fat Buttons to Assess Visual Impact —
investigates procedures for assessing visual exposure; Use
Maps to Assess Visual Vulnerability — discusses a
procedure for identifying visually vulnerable areas; Try
Vulnerability Maps to Visualize Aesthetics — describes a
procedure for deriving an aesthetics map based on visual exposure to pretty
and ugly places 
Unique Map Analytics 
· Beyond Mapping
III, Topic 22 – Reclassifying and Overlaying Maps, Options
Seem Endless When Reclassifying Maps — discusses the basic reclassifying map operations; Contiguity
Ties Things Together — describes an analytical approach for
determining effective contiguity (clumped features) 
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 
Part 3 – Spatial Statistics 

sSTEM Topic 
Link and Description 
Overview of Spatial Statistics 
· Beyond Mapping
III, Topic 24 – Overview of Spatial Analysis and
Statistics, Use
Spatial Statistics to Map Abnormal Averages — discusses surface modeling to characterize the spatial distribution
inherent in a data set; Making
Space for Mapped Data — investigates the link between geographic space
and data space for mapping data patterns; Infusing
Spatial Character into Statistics — describes a statistical structure
for spatial statistics operations 
Linking data Space and Geographic Space 
· Beyond Mapping
III, Topic 28 – Spatial Data Mining in GeoBusiness, Twisting
the Perspective of Map Surfaces — describes the character of
spatial distributions through the generation of a customer density surface; Linking
Numeric and Geographic Distributions — investigates the
link between numeric and geographic distributions of mapped data · Beyond Mapping
III, Topic 24 – Overview of Spatial Analysis and
Statistics, Making
Space for Mapped Data — investigates the link
between geographic space and data space for mapping data patterns · Beyond Mapping
III, Topic 16 – Characterizing Patterns and
Relationships, GIS Represents Spatial Patterns and Relationships
— discusses the important differences among discrete
mapping , continuous map surfaces and map analysis · Beyond Mapping
III, Topic 7 – Linking Data Space and Geographic Space,
Beware
the Slippery Surfaces of GIS Modeling —
discusses the relationships among maps, map surfaces and data distributions; Link Data and Geographic Distributions —
describes the direct link between numeric and geographic distributions; Normally
Things Aren’t Normal — discusses the appropriateness of
using traditional “normal” and percentile statistics; Explore
Mapped Data— describes creation of a Standardized Map Variable
surface using Median and Quartile Range; Babies
and Bath Water — discusses the information lost in
aggregating field data and assigning typical values to polygons (desktop
mapping); Explore Data Space — establishes the
concept of "data space" and how mapped data conforms to this
fundamental view 
Basic Descriptive Statistics and Classification 
· Beyond Mapping
III, Topic 16 – Characterizing Patterns and
Relationships, Use
Mapping “Art” to Visualize Values — describes procedures for
generating contour maps; What’s
Missing in Mapping? — discusses the need for identifying data
dispersion as well as average in Thematic Mapping · Beyond Mapping
III, Topic 18,
Understanding Gridbased Data, Maps
Are Numbers First, Pictures Later — discusses the numeric and geographic
characteristics of map values; Grids
and Lattices Build Visualizations — describes Lattice and
Grid forms of map surface display; Contour
Lines versus Color Gradients for Displaying Spatial Information —
discusses the similarities and differences between discrete contour line and
continuous gradient procedures for visualizing map surfaces 
Map Comparison 
· Beyond Mapping
III, Topic 10 – Analyzing Map Similarity and Zoning, Compare Maps by the Numbers —
describes several techniques for comparing discrete maps; Use
Statistics to Compare Map
Surfaces — describes several techniques
for comparing map surfaces · Beyond Mapping
III, Topic 16 – Characterizing Patterns and
Relationships, Statistically
Compare Discrete Maps — discusses procedures for
comparing discrete maps; Statistically
Compare Continuous Map Surfaces — discusses
procedures for comparing continuous map surfaces · Beyond Mapping
III, Topic 18, Understanding
Gridbased Data, Normalizing
Maps for Data Analysis —
describes map normalization and data exchange with other software packages; Comparing
Apples and Oranges — describes a Standard Normal
Variable (SNV) procedure for normalizing maps 
Unique Map Descriptive Statistics 
· Beyond Mapping
III, Topic 18,
Understanding Gridbased Data, Correlating
Maps and a Numerical Mindset —
describes a Spatially Localized Correlation procedure for mapping the mutual
relationship between two map variables 
Spatial Autocorrelation and Surface Modeling 
· Beyond Mapping
III, Topic 2 – Spatial Interpolation Procedures and
Assessment, The
Average Is Hardly Anywhere — discusses the
difference between spatial and nonspatial data distributions; Under
the Hood of Spatial Interpolation — investigates
the basic concepts in IDW and Krig interpolation
procedures; Justifiable Interpolation —
describes the "Residual Analysis" procedure for assessing
interpolation performance; Move Beyond a Map Full of Errors —
discusses a technique for generating a "shadow map" of error; Comparing Map Errors — describes
how normalized maps of error can be used to visualize the differences in
error surfaces · Beyond Mapping
III, Topic 8 – Investigating Spatial Dependency, Unlocking the Keystone Concept of Spatial Dependency —
discusses spatial dependency and illustrates the effects of different spatial
arrangements of the same set of data; Measuring Spatial Dependency —
describes the basic measures of autocorrelation; Extending Spatial Dependency to Maps —
describes a technique for generating a map of spatial autocorrelation; Use
Polar Variograms to Assess Distance and Direction
Dependencies — discuses a procedure to
incorporate direction as well as distance for assessing spatial dependency · Beyond Mapping
III, Topic 26 – Assessing SpatiallyDefined
Neighborhoods, Milking
Spatial Context Information —
describes a procedure for deriving a customer density surface · Beyond Mapping
III, Topic 28 – Spatial Data Mining in GeoBusiness, Myriad
Techniques Help to Interpolate Spatial Distributions —
discusses the basic concepts underlying spatial interpolation; Interpreting
Interpolation Results (and why it is important) — describes
the use of “residual analysis” for evaluating spatial interpolation
performance 
Advanced Classification 
· Beyond Mapping
III, Topic 7 – Linking Data Space and Geographic Space,
Identify Data Patterns
— discusses data clustering and its application in
identifying spatial patterns · Beyond Mapping
III, Topic 16 – Characterizing Patterns and
Relationships, Use
Similarity to Identify Data Zones — describes levelslicing
for classifying areas into zones containing a specified data pattern; Use
Statistics to Map Data Clusters — discusses
clustering for partitioning an are into separate
data groups; Correlating
Maps and a Numerical Mindset — describes a Spatially Localized
Correlation procedure for mapping the mutual relationship between two map
variables · Beyond Mapping
III, Topic 28 – Spatial Data Mining in GeoBusiness, Use
Map Analysis to Characterize Data Groups — discusses the use of
“data distance” to derive similarity among the data patterns in a set of map
layers; Get
“Mapematical” to Identify Data Zones —
describes the use of “levelslicing” for classifying locations with a
specified data pattern (data zones); Discover
the “Miracle” in Mapping Data Clusters — describes the use
of “clustering” to identify inherent groupings of similar data patterns 
Spatial Correlation and Predictive Statistics 
· Beyond Mapping
III, Topic 28 – Spatial Data Mining in GeoBusiness, Can
We Really Map the Future? — describes the use of “linear regression” to develop
prediction equations relating dependent and independent map variables; Follow
These Steps to Map Potential Sales — describes an extensive geobusiness application that
combines retail competition analysis and product sales prediction · Beyond Mapping
III, Topic 16 – Characterizing Patterns and
Relationships, Spatial
Data Mining Allows Users to Predict Maps — describes the
basic concepts and procedures for deriving equations that can be used to
derive prediction maps; Stratify
Maps to Make Better Predictions — illustrates a
procedure for subdividing an area into smaller more homogenous groups prior
to generating prediction equations · Beyond Mapping
III, Topic 10 – Analyzing Map Similarity and Zoning, Use
Scatterplots to Understand Map Correlation
— discusses the underlying concepts in assessing
correlation among maps; Can
Predictable Maps Work for You? — describes
a procedure for deriving a spatial prediction model 
Geographic Space as Universal database Key 
· Beyond Mapping
III, Topic 28 – Spatial Data Mining in GeoBusiness, The
Universal Key for Unlocking GIS’s Full Potential — outlines
a global referencing system approach compatible with standard DBMS systems · Beyond Mapping
III, Topic 16 – Characterizing Patterns and
Relationships, Multiple
Methods Help Organize Raster Data — discusses
different approaches to storing raster data; VtoR
and Back! — describes various techniques for converting between
vector and raster data types 
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 