...Detailed Table of Contents (under construction-- covers only completed topics, 7/30/99)
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The Precision Farming Primer  

© 1999
Precision Farming Primer

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An Overview of Precision Farming -- introduces spatial relationships as the basis of precision farming
Underlying Principles -- describes the difference between whole-field and site-specific farming
Unusual Blend of technologies -- introduces the technologies supporting precision farming
Processing Precision Farming Data -- identifies the different levels in precision farming
Technical Issues -- introduces the four steps of the precision farming process
Current Reality and Future Directions -- looks at the opportunities of site-specific management


The Precision Farming Primer  
   Topic 1: Continuous Data Logging



Smart Farmers and Dumb Maps -- identifies differences between descriptive and prescriptive mapping
GIS Quality Data -- describes a field's geographic patterns as an organized set of numbers
Four Basic Steps in Precision Farming -- describes the basic steps of the precision farming process
Putting Yield in Its Place --  discusses differences in mapping yield as discrete points or continuous surfaces
Putting Yield in Its Proper Place -- describes the major factors affecting geo-referencing of "raw" yield data
Connecting the Dots -- discusses the implications of point, swath, and grid formats for mapping yield data
Is Precision Farming Accurate? -- investigates differences between precision and accuracy
Resolving Yield Mapping Issues -- describes the "accuracy advantage" of grid formatted data


The Precision Farming Primer  
   Topic 2: Point Sampling



Dirty Stuff -- presents an overview of the sampling process
Sampling Patterns -- discusses sampling patterns and their implications
From Points to Maps -- describes important factors common in spatial interpolation
Surf's Up -- discusses procedures and results of IDW, Kriging and MinCurve interpolation
How Good Is My Map? -- describes the Residual Analysis procedure for assessing interpolation results
A Map of Error -- identifies a procedure for generating maps of error from Residual Analysis
Justifiable Interpolation -- introduces the important concept of spatial dependency
What's It Like Around Here? -- describes the information in a variogram plot of spatial dependency
Zones and Surfaces -- discusses fundamental differences between Management Zones and Map Surfaces


The Precision Farming Primer  
   Topic 3: Mapped Data Analysis Within a Single Map



The Big Picture -- reviews the basic steps in the precision farming process
Visceral Visions -- visually compares yield map displays
Visualizing Yield Data -- describes the differences between map data and map displays
Back to Basics -- reviews  "normal" statistical concepts (mean, median and mode)
Sticks and Stones -- discusses data dispersion measures (standard deviation and coffvar)
Statistically Summarizing Mapped Data -- discusses basic statistics used to describe mapped data
Assessing Spatial Dependency -- describes a basic procedure for measuring spatial dependency
Typifying Atypical Data -- discusses "non-normal" data (skewed and bi-modal)
A Standardized Map -- describes a procedure for identifying "unusual" locations in mapped data
Mapping Localized Variation -- describes a procedure for identifying areas of "high variability"
Mapping the Rate of Change -- describes a procedure for identifying areas of "rapidly changing conditions"


The Precision Farming Primer  
   Topic 4: Mapped Data Analysis Among Several Maps



So, What’s the Difference? — discusses differences in information provided by visual vs. data analysis
Relating Maps — introduces basic concepts used in assessing relationships between maps
Viewing Maps as Data — describes linkages among traditional maps, data distributions and map surfaces
Data Space: The Next Frontier — introduces the underlying concept a computer uses to "see" map patterns
Map Similarity — extends the discussion to a computer procedure for assessing map similarity
Clustering Map Data: Part I — describes how a computer identifies similar "data zones" within an area
Clustering Map Data: Part II — discusses clustering procedures and interpretation of the results (
in prep)
Prediction Maps: Part I —  introduces concepts of spatial correlation and predictive modeling (
in prep)
Prediction Maps: Part II — discusses regression procedures and interpretation of the results (
in prep)
Comparing Maps — describes two basic approaches in comparing traditional maps
Comparing Map Surfaces: Part I — discusses the use of statistical tests in comparing mapped data
Comparing Map Surfaces: Part II — describes spatially based approaches to comparing mapped data
On-Farm Testing — investigates the use of GIS for on-farm studies (
in prep)


The Precision Farming Primer  
   Topic 6: Understanding GIS



What Is GIS? -- defines geographic information systems (GIS)
Data Formats -- describes how "map features" are stored in a GIS
Data Links -- describes how "attribute" information is linked to map features
Dumb Maps -- discusses "vector" data structure and its implications
Raster Features -- discusses "raster" data structure and its implications
Converting Between Lines and Squares -- identifies procedures for converting between vector and raster
Workspaces -- discusses overall GIS data organization considerations
More on Spatial Topology -- discusses data structure and its effect on GIS analysis
Data Pedigree -- identifies metadata considerations and levels of data documentation


The Precision Farming Primer  
   Topic 7:
Understanding GPS, RS and IDI



Your Position: Where Are You? — introduces the basic concepts used in geographic referencing
Your Position: Projecting the Right Image — discusses map projection issues
GPS: Basic Stuff — describes how GPS technology works
GPS: Intermediate Stuff — discusses basic factors affecting GPS accuracy
GPS: Advanced Stuff — discusses additional GPS considerations
Remote Sensing: Basic Stuff — introduces basic remote sensing principles as applied to imaging vegetation
Remote Sensing: Intermediate Stuff — investigates important factors affecting RS signals from plant canopies
Remote Sensing: Advanced Stuff — discusses how RS data is analyzed using a computer
IDI: Yield Monitors — describes how Yield Monitors work (in prep)
IDI: Variable Rate Technology — describes how Variable Rate Technology works (in prep)


The Precision Farming Primer  
   Appendix A: ...the rest of the story



Part 1. Yield Mapping Considerations
Yield Mapping Sparks Precision Farming Success by Neil Havermale -- discusses several factors affecting spatial accuracy in yield mapping
Yield Monitors Create On- and Off-Farm Profit Opportunities by Tom Doerge — discusses the benefits of yield monitoring and mapping 

Part 2. Investigating Interpolation Results
Comparing Interpolated and Extrapolated Data -- investigates the relative performance of spatial interpolation and extrapolation
Normalized Map Comparisons -- compares raw and normalized maps
Defining the Norm -- describes a procedure for normalizing mapped data
Comparing the Comparable -- discusses the importance of comparing normalized maps
Visually Comparing Normalized Residual Maps -- visually compares normalized maps of Average, IDW, Kriging and MinCurve interpolation results
More on Zones and Surfaces -- discusses the relative variation "explained" by zone and surface maps
Last Word on Zones and Surfaces -- discusses the effects of "unexplained" variation in site-specific management
Excel Worksheet Investigating Zones and Surfaces --  provides access to Excel worksheets used in the zone and surface discussions

Part 3. More on Spatial Dependency
Spatial Dependency and Distance -- describes a procedure for relating spatial dependency and distance
Mapping Spatial Dependency -- describes a procedure for mapping localized spatial dependency
Excel Worksheets Investigating Spatial Dependency -- provides access to Excel worksheets used in the spatial dependency discussions

Part 4. More on Comparing Maps
Validity of Statistical Tests with Mapped Data by William Huber  — discusses concerns in applying traditional non-spatial techniques to analyze mapped data (in prep)
Excel Worksheet Investigating Map Surface Comparison — worksheet containing the calculations for t-test, percent difference and surface configuration examples


The Precision Farming Primer  
   Appendix C:
Checklist for Yield Mapping



Part 1 -- General Information and System Specification
Part 2 -- Software Installation, Program Environment, and Documentation/Support
Part 3 -- Data Handling
Part 4 -- Map Generation and Summary
Part 5 -- General Comments and Overview Summary
About -- the @gInnovator project

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