Spatial Reasoning for Effective GIS
Joseph K. Berry, Colorado State University
(1995, John Wiley Publishers)
<click here for information
about the author>
Online information at http://www.innovativegis.com/basis/Books/MapAnalysis/
…available for purchase online from Wiley.com and Amazon.com
here> for printer-friendly version
(.pdf); posted online line at www.innovativegis.com/basis/Books/spatial.htm
Most desktop mapping and GIS
applications have focused on mapping and spatial data management for viewing
and geo-query of mapped data. Map analysis and GIS
modeling involve entirely new spatial reasoning concepts and procedures that
are not reflected in our paper map legacy. This book discusses the new
breed of map analysis tools and how they can be used to better characterize and
communicate spatial relationships. Spatial Reasoning and its companion
book, Beyond Mapping: Concepts, Algorithms and Issues in GIS (Berry, 1993), are based on Joe Berry’s popular
"Beyond Mapping" columns in GIS
World magazine. The books are written
for GIS professionals, as well as novices, in a witty style that entertains as
well as informs.
Spatial Reasoning explores the basic concepts of map analysis and
discusses the fundamental elements of GIS that make it different from
traditional map structure, content, processing and use. The book encourages the reader to extend the
historic role of maps telling us “Where is what?” to “So what?” It is an invitation to consider the expanded
capabilities of GIS and relate them to current operations thereby fostering an
appreciation of GIS as an effective analytical tool in solving many complex
spatial issues. GIS is a new technology,
and as such it presents new opportunities as well as new pitfalls. This book engages the reader through
incisive and relaxed discussion that investigates why GIS technology is “as
different from as it is similar” to traditional map processing.
The book also contains an extensive resource appendix and a glossary of
GIS terms written by Bruce L. Kessler, originally published in the Journal of
The MapCalc software by BASIS
provides hands-on exercises supporting the topics in this book. Professional and Developer versions of the software are in development.
The Educational version, MapCalc Learner and support materials
are available for free download from www.innovativegis.com, see “Software” item.
MapCalc Learner with MapCalc and Surfer*
tutorial systems, exercises/databases, and application examples; constrained
100 x 100 analysis frame; licensed for educational use. Free download.
Instructor Materials containing
lecture PowerPoint’s, additional exercises and exam questions/answers;
multiple seat license for single computer lab; educational use only; two CD
set; US$45.00 plus shipping and handling.
*Surfer is a popular surface modeling
and 3D display package by Golden Software, Inc.
It is bundled with the educational version of MapCalc and provides
complementary exercises. For more
information on Surfer, link to http://www.goldensoftware.com/frames/surferframe.htm
Spatial Reasoning for Effective GIS
This is a collection
of Joe Berry’s popular "Beyond mapping" columns published in GeoWorld
from 1993 to 1996. In this compilation, Berry explores the development of
geographic information systems (GIS)
technology from maps that simply answered the question, "Where is
it?" to systems that help us answer the question "Why is
it?" Spatial Reasoning further develops understanding of mapped
data, data analysis procedures and the uses of maps. This second book in
the series keeps a reader moving beyond basic mapping. The material
presented in Spatial Reasoning is cross-referenced to the companion GIS Concepts Digital Slide Shows (gCON) and Tutorial Map Analysis Package (tMAP) software. The gCON
system is designed for self-learning map analysis concepts through slide sets
demonstrating GIS procedures and
applications. The tMAP software program is designed
for self-learning map analysis concepts through "hands-on"
original gCON Digital Slides Shows have been replaced
by the online MapCalc Description and Examples document and the tMAP software has been replaced by the MapCalc Learner
software (free download at www.innovativegis.com, under “Software”).
- Introduction —
the GIS technology cart in
front of the horse? Data mining, predictive modeling and dynamic
simulation are new applications of GIS
used to uncover spatial relationships and sensitivities among mapped data.
This section discusses the revolutionary procedures identifying the
driving forces, trends and forecasts of the a
- Topic 1 Understanding GIS — As GIS moves from graphical inventories to
spatial reasoning, new procedures must be developed to communicate the
logic that supports GIS
models. An end user must interact with a model—a spatial
spreadsheet—that can present alternative perspectives. This section
describes the interactive use of a map pedigree linking GIS commands to a flowchart of model logic.
- Topic 2 From Field Samples to Mapped Data — In the simplest
sense, statistics are merely a collection of numbers. Traditional
statistical analysis characterize the
"typical response" in a data set, whereas spatial statistics
seek to map the data’s distribution in geographic space. This
section compares the two approaches and investigates various techniques of
- Topic 3 Implementing GIS
— GIS technology
begins with a through understanding of its
intended applications and operating environment. This section presents an
applications-driven procedure for assessing GIS
information needs within an organization and establishes a hierarchy of
questions it can address.
- Topic 4 Toward and Honest GIS
— By their nature,
maps are abstractions of real conditions. They approximate the
positioning of tangible or conceptual features on our landscape with
varying degrees of certainty. This section introduces the concept of
using a "shadow map" of certainty to track error propagation in GIS models.
- Topic 5 A Framework for GIS Modeling — The use of GIS to model complex spatial relationships is
increasing rapidly. Our understanding of the types and approaches of
models, however, is based on decades of nonspatial modeling
experience. This section presents a classification framework for GIS models and a flowcharting methodology.
- Topic 6 Alternative Data Structures — At the heart of GIS is data. How data are structured, in large
part, determines a system’s performance, capabilities and breadth of
applications. This section describes alternative approaches to
vector and raster data structures.
- Topic 7 Organizing the Map Analysis Toolbox — What GIS can do depends on the depth of the spatial
information available to the computer, tempered by the depth of
understanding of the analytical operations by those who use it. This
section discusses spatial topology and its extension to the classification
of analytical GIS operations.
- Topic 8 The Anatomy of a GIS
Model — Although GIS models address a wide diversity of
applications, the basic structure of most models are quite similar.
This section compares several GIS
models to illustrate different modeling approaches and varying levels of
results they generate.
- Topic 9 Putting GIS
in the Hands of People —
Global Positioning System (GPS)
focuses on real-time positioning in space while remote sensing (RS)
technology focuses on monitoring and classifying the landscape. This
section covers the underlying principles of these related fields and their
integration into a GIS/GPS/RS field unit.
- Topic 10 A Futuristic GIS — Spatial Analysis
is more than mapping and spatial database management. It involves
deriving new information to express relationships based on the relative
positions of map features. This section establishes a framework for
spatial analysis and demonstrates several of its import aspects.
- Epilog —
GIS technology is
thought of as hardware and software. However, the "humanware" component often determines the
usefulness of the system. This section discusses the human factor in
GIS and the linkages and
distinctions among data, information, knowledge and wisdom.
- Appendices —
are included that describe the companion software for self-learning GIS concepts and applications, a listing of GIS resources, and a collection of
mathematical formulae used in GIS
by Nigel Waters.
The Spatial Reasoning for Effective
GIS book can be purchased online from Wiley.com and Amazon.com.
more information about the Spatial Reasoning book and supporting materials,
Berry & Associates // Spatial Information
Systems (BASIS), Fort Collins, Colorado