Beyond Mapping: Concepts,
Algorithms and Issues in GIS
K. Berry (1993, John Wiley Publishers)
…available for purchase online from Wiley.com and Amazon.com (about $95)
<click here> for printer-friendly version (.pdf) ; posted
online line at www.innovativegis.com/basis/Books/bm_des.htm
Most desktop mapping and GIS
applications have focused on mapping and spatial data management for viewing
and geo-query of mapped data. Map analysis and GIS
modeling involve entirely new spatial reasoning concepts and procedures that
are not reflected in our paper map legacy. This book and its companion
book, Spatial Reasoning
for Effective GIS (Berry, 1995), are based on Joe
Berry’s popular "Beyond Mapping" columns in GIS
World magazine and, discusses the new breed of map analysis tools and how they
can be used to better characterize and communicate spatial relationships.
Both books are written for GIS professionals, as well as novices, in a witty
style that entertains as well as informs.
Beyond Mapping explores the basic concepts of Geographic
Information Systems (GIS) technology and discusses the issues involved as GIS
moves from the researcher to the general user.
The emerging technology goes beyond traditional mapping and spatial data
management to new concepts and procedures for modeling the complex
interrelationships among spatial data of all kinds. Beyond Mapping is designed so the
general user can read about broad issues and then delve into more detail, even
at the algorithm level.
The book also contains an extensive resource appendix and a stimulating
discussion of “The Ten Most Beautiful Formulae in GIS,” by Nigel Waters.
The MapCalc software by BASIS
provides hands-on exercises supporting the topics in this book. Professional and Developer versions of the software are in development.
The Educational version, MapCalc Learner and support materials
are available for free download from www.innovativegis.com,
see “Software” item.
Learner with MapCalc and Surfer* tutorial systems, exercises/databases, and
application examples; constrained 100 x 100 analysis frame; licensed for
educational use. Free
Materials containing lecture PowerPoint’s, additional exercises and exam questions/answers;
multiple seat license for single computer lab; educational use only; two CD
set; US$45.00 plus shipping and handling.
*Surfer is a popular surface modeling
and 3D display package by Golden Software, Inc.
It is bundled with the educational version of MapCalc and provides
complementary exercises. For more
information on Surfer, link to http://www.goldensoftware.com/frames/surferframe.htm
Beyond Mapping: Concepts, Algorithms and
Issues in GIS
This is a collection
of Joe Berry’s popular "Beyond mapping" columns published in GeoWorld
from 1989 to 1993. In this compilation, Berry explores the concepts of geographic
information systems (GIS)
technology and discusses the issues involved as GIS
moves from the researcher to the general user. This emerging technology
goes beyond traditional mapping and spatial database management to new concepts
and procedures for modeling the complex interrelations among spatial data of
all kinds. Beyond Mapping is designed so the general user can read
about broad issues then delve into more detail, even to the algorithm level.
The material presented in Beyond Mapping is cross-referenced to
the companion GIS Concepts Digital
Slide Shows (gCON) and Tutorial Map Analysis Package (tMAP) software. The
gCON system is designed for self-learning map analysis concepts through slide
sets demonstrating GIS procedures
and applications. The tMAP software program is designed for self-learning
map analysis concepts through "hands-on" experience.
original gCON Digital Slides Shows have been replaced by the online MapCalc
Description and Examples document and the tMAP software has been replaced
by the MapCalc Learner software (free download at www.innovativegis.com,
are some similarities, but many differences, between traditional and GIS maps. This section describes the conceptual
differences and terminology used in vector and raster map formats and an
overall organizational structure for GIS
- Topic 1 Maps As Data
and Data Structure Implications — The full impact of numerical representation
of spatial data in GIS is
just beginning to be recognized. In this section the implications of
vector and raster data models on encoding, storage, and analysis are
discussed. The inherent statistical characterizations of mapped data and
their implications in map analysis are described.
- Topic 2 Measuring
Effective Distance and Connectivity — Before GIS
technology, the concept of distance was as simple and straightforward as a
ruler. Now the traditional concept of distance is first extended to
one of proximity, then to one of actual movement in geographic space,
around and through barriers. Procedures and applications of optimal
path analysis over continuous map surfaces also are presented.
- Topic 3 Roving
Windows: Assessment of Neighborhood Characteristics — The information
surrounding a point often provides insight into spatial problem solving.
Neighborhood summaries can be derived from surface configuration to
produce slope, aspect and profile maps. Or, the summaries can relate
to the context of the neighborhood for such procedures as spatial
interpolation, smoothing, and diversity analysis. More than any
other class of operations, roving windows provide entirely new
applications for map analysis.
- Topic 4 What GIS Is and Isn’t: Spatial Data Mapping,
Management, Modeling and More —
initial applications of GIS
automate current cartographic practices. However, the greatest
return on investment in GIS
technology is realized through entirely new applications inspired by the
new set of map analysis tools. This section develops an awareness of
the considerations and conditions that move user perspective from computer
mapping to spatial database management to application modeling and beyond.
- Topic 5 Assessing
Variability, Shape, and Pattern of Map Features — The shape and
pattern of landscape features are readily apparent to the eye but
historically difficult to quantify. This section describes several
indices used in characterizing the configuration and arrangement of
- Topic 6 Overlaying
Maps and Characterizing Error Propagation — Overlaying maps
is at the heart of most GIS
applications. However, the propagation of errors needs to be
characterized and included with the overlay results. This section
describes approaches used in establishing map uncertainty and assessing
- Topic 7 Overlaying
Maps and Summarizing the Results — In GIS
overlaying maps goes beyond traditional procedures of
"sandwiching" map sheets on a light-table. In this
section, procedures for point-by-point, region-wide, and map-wide overlay
summaries are described. Numerous applications and the underlying concepts
- Topic 8 Scoping GIS: What to Consider — GIS technology is a
radical departure from traditional map processing; therefore, assessing
its potential within an organization needs to go beyond traditional
cost-benefit analysis. This section describes the major
organizational, social, and personal ramifications of implementing GIS.
- Topic 9 Slope,
Distance and Connectivity: Their Algorithms — At first
encounter, many of the advanced GIS
analytical operations are intimidating. However, a basic
understanding of the computer’s procedures is needed to assess the
potential and limitations of the new tools. This section describes
various approaches used in computing slope, effective distance, optimal
paths and visual connectivity.
- Topic 10
Cartographic and Spatial Modeling — Many GIS
applications take the technology well beyond mapping and into the larger
field of mathematical modeling. This section discusses command
"macro" construction, the mathematical implications, and the use
of GIS models in consensus
building and conflict resolution.
- Epilog — We have been
creating and using mapped for thousands of years. This section looks
at GIS’s history, current
trends and probable future.
- Appendices — Appendices are
included that describe the companion software for self-learning GIS concepts and applications, a listing of GIS resources, and a glossary of terms by
Bruce L. Kessler.
The Spatial Reasoning for Effective
GIS book can be purchased online from Wiley.com and Amazon.com.
more information about the Spatial Reasoning book and supporting materials,
Berry & Associates // Spatial Information
Systems (BASIS), Fort Collins, Colorado