Mapping: Concepts, Algorithms and Issues in GIS
by Joseph K. Berry (1993, John Wiley
…can be purchased online from www.wiley.com and www.amazon.com ($70)
Most desktop mapping and GIS applications have focused on mapping
and spatial data management for viewing and geo-query of mapped data. Map
analysis and GIS modeling involve entirely new spatial reasoning concepts and
procedures that are not reflected in our paper map legacy. These books,
based on Joe Berry’s
popular "Beyond Mapping" columns in GIS World magazine, discuss the
new breed of map analysis tools and how they can be used to better characterize
and communicate spatial relationships. Beyond
Mapping: Concepts, Algorithms and Issues in GIS (Berry,
1993), is written for GIS professionals, as well as novices, in a witty style
that entertains as well as informs.
Beyond Mapping explores the basic concepts of map analysis and
discusses emerging issues as GIS moves from the realm of research to widespread
applications. The book is structured so the reader first can examine the
broad issues and then delve into more detail. Spatial
Reasoning for Effective GIS (Berry,
1995) continues with the same format, style and informative discussions. It
is an incisive book describing the expansion of geographic technology from maps
that simply tell us "Where is what" to systems that help us decide
"So what?" It encourages new understanding of mapped data, data
analysis procedures and map uses, fostering an appreciation of GIS as an
effective analytical tool. Thousands of professionals and over a hundred
universities use the books to bridge the gap from simply GISing
to map analysis and modeling.
The MapCalc software by Red hen Systems
provides hands-on exercises supporting the topics in this book.
Educational, Professional and Developer versions of the software are under
development at Red Hen Systems (http://www.redhensystems.com/). The Educational Version is scheduled for
release August 31, 2000
in both student and instructor forms…
Student Tutorial Version (CD) with MapCalc and Surfer* Tutorial systems,
Exercises/databases, application demos and text; 100x100 configuration; single
seat license for educational use only; US$21.95 plus shipping and handling.
Instructor Version (CD) with all of the above plus lecture
PowerPoint’s, additional exercises and exam questions/answers; multiple seat
license for single computer lab; educational use only; US$495.00 plus shipping
a popular surface modeling package by Golden Software, Inc. It is bundled with the educational versions
of MapCalc and provides complementary exercises. For more information on Surfer, link to http://www.goldensoftware.com/frames/surferframe.htm
An evaluation copy of MapCalc is available for download at…
<To be announced>
Beyond Mapping: Concepts,
Algorithms and Issues in GIS
This is a collection of Joe Berry’s popular
"Beyond mapping" columns published in GISWORLD from 1989 to
1993. In this compilation, Berry
explores the concepts of geographic information systems (GIS) technology and discusses
the issues involved as GIS moves from the researcher to the general user.
This emerging technology goes beyond traditional mapping and spatial
database management to new concepts and procedures for modeling the complex
interrelations among spatial data of all kinds. Beyond Mapping is
designed so the general user can read about broad issues then delve into more detail, even to the algorithm level.
Printed chronologically and categorized by 10 topic headings, this collection
is cross-referenced within the book. Berry’s
witty writing style is sure to inform as it entertains the GIS professional as
well as the novice. The material presented in Beyond Mapping is
cross-referenced to the companion GIS Concepts Digital Slide Shows (gCON) and Tutorial Map Analysis Package (tMAP) software. The gCON
system is designed for self-learning map analysis concepts through slide sets
demonstrating GIS procedures and applications. The tMAP
system is designed for self-learning map analysis concepts through "hands-on"
— There are some similarities,
but many differences, between traditional and GIS maps. This section
describes the conceptual differences and terminology used in vector and raster
map formats and an overall organizational structure for GIS databases.
1 Maps As Data and Data Structure Implications — The full
impact of numerical representation of spatial data in GIS is just
beginning to be recognized. In this section the implications of
vector and raster data models on encoding, storage, and analysis are
discussed. The inherent statistical characterizations of mapped data and
their implications in map analysis are described.
2 Measuring Effective Distance and Connectivity — Before GIS
technology, the concept of distance was as simple and straightforward as a
ruler. Now the traditional concept of distance is first extended to
one of proximity, then to one of actual movement in geographic space,
around and through barriers. Procedures and applications of optimal
path analysis over continuous map surfaces also are presented.
3 Roving Windows: Assessment of Neighborhood Characteristics — The information
surrounding a point often provides insight into spatial problem solving.
Neighborhood summaries can be derived from surface configuration to
produce slope, aspect and profile maps. Or, the summaries can relate
to the context of the neighborhood for such procedures as spatial
interpolation, smoothing, and diversity analysis. More than any
other class of operations, roving windows provide
entirely new applications for map analysis.
4 What GIS Is and Isn’t: Spatial Data Mapping, Management, Modeling and
More — Most initial applications of GIS automate current cartographic
practices. However, the greatest return on investment in GIS
technology is realized through entirely new applications inspired by the
new set of map analysis tools. This section develops an awareness of
the considerations and conditions that move user perspective from computer
mapping to spatial database management to application modeling and beyond.
5 Assessing Variability, Shape, and Pattern of Map Features — The shape
and pattern of landscape features are readily apparent to the eye but
historically difficult to quantify. This section describes several
indices used in characterizing the configuration and arrangement of
6 Overlaying Maps and Characterizing Error Propagation — Overlaying maps is at the heart of most GIS
applications. However, the propagation of errors needs to be
characterized and included with the overlay results. This section
describes approaches used in establishing map uncertainty and assessing
7 Overlaying Maps and Summarizing the Results — In GIS
overlaying maps goes beyond traditional procedures of
"sandwiching" map sheets on a light-table. In this
section, procedures for point-by-point, region-wide, and map-wide overlay
summaries are described. Numerous applications and the underlying concepts
8 Scoping GIS: What to Consider — GIS
technology is a radical departure from traditional map processing,
therefore, assessing its potential within an organization needs to go
beyond traditional cost-benefit analysis. This section describes the
major organizational, social, and personal ramnifications
of implementing GIS.
9 Slope, Distance and Connectivity: Their Algorithms — At first encounter, many of the advanced GIS
analytical operations are intimidating. However, a basic
understanding of the computer’s procedures is needed to assess the
potential and limitations of the new tools. This section describes
various approaches used in computing slope, effective distance, optimal
paths and visual connectivity.
10 Cartographic and Spatial Modeling — Many GIS applications take the technology well beyond mapping and
into the larger field of mathematical modeling. This section
discusses command "macro" construction, the mathematical
implications, and the use of GIS models in consensus building and conflict
- Epilog — We have
been creating and using mapped for thousands of years. This section
looks at GIS’s history, current trends and probable future.
— Appendices are included that
describe the companion software for self-learning GIS concepts and
applications, a listing of GIS resources, and a glossary of terms by Bruce
The Beyond Mapping: Concepts,
Algorithms and Issues book can be purchased online from www.wiley.com and www.amazon.com.
plus shipping and handling as of 8/00)
For more information
about the BM/SR books and MapCalc software contact :
Berry & Associates, 2000 South College Avenue, Suite 300, Fort Collins,
CO 80525: Phone 970-490-2155; Fax -2300; Email firstname.lastname@example.org.